touchscreen monitor test 2022 – the 5 best touchscreen monitors in comparison

In the big touchscreen monitor test, the sensitive displays are subjected to a close examination. The subsequent comparison allows you to choose a unit that best suits your needs. Screen testing runs along the most important criteria and allows an objective assessment of the products. The focus of testing is on how fast multi-touch inputs are registered by the respective devices. For the extensive touchscreen monitor product test, expert studies were used and numerous reviews were evaluated.

Author Stefan Albrecht

My name is Stefan Albrecht, I am 23 years old and come from Dortmund. As a computer science student and gamer, I guess I’m something of a typical nerd. I share my technical expertise from 200+ product tests here on ExpertenTesten.en.

Touchscreen monitor best list 2022 – The best touchscreen monitors in the test& Comparison

Last updated on: 06.01.2022

Author Stefan Albrecht

My name is Stefan Albrecht, I am 23 years old and come from Dortmund. As a computer science student and gamer, I guess I’m something of a typical nerd. I share my technical expertise from 200+ product tests here on ExpertenTesten.en.

What is a touchscreen monitor and how does it work?

What is a touchscreen monitor

The touchscreen monitor is a Input and output device, whose control is possible by touching the display. This can be done either by finger pressure or by means of a pointing stylus. In the past, the touchscreen was also referred to as a touch-sensitive screen, but now the English term is more common.

They are also used in ATMs, voting machines, point-of-sale systems, medical diagnostic systems, home computers and as control consoles in heavy industry. Per Fingerprint you can write texts with the help of the digital keyboard, start apps and control programs. A simple swipe gesture closes a program, for example. At PC and home use the touchscreen monitor replaces the traditional operation, which still relies on keyboard and mouse.

Precisely because of the different areas of application and the different types of touchscreens, a test must take various comparison criteria into account. From device to device in the product test, features such as Display size, Sensitivity, Response times, Connections and Use scenarion differ. But in many points there is also a certain similarity.

The test also goes into detail about the different manufacturers, showing weaknesses and strengths of the devices. Before buying, you should definitely make a comparison of the different touchscreen monitors. Only then can you be sure that you have chosen the right product. In some points there may be a match between the displays, but a close inspection will then show the product test winner. The test breaks down the Criterian, which are Purchase weighted should be.

There are different types of touchscreen monitors, which also affects the way it works. The test mainly distinguishes between the resistive and capacitive touchscreen monitors. The capacitive displays have a foil coated with metal oxide. This is then laminated directly onto the glass. The film generates an alternating voltage at the edges of the screen, forming an electric field. Press If you touch the screen of the touchscreen monitor with your finger, this affects the electric field at the same time. A charge is generated. This change is measured at the edges and a controller then calculates the corresponding Touch position.

Resistive touchscreen work thanks to two foils that lie minimally on top of each other. As soon as the bottom panel feels a pressure, current flows at the respective spot, which allows the position to be determined. Inductive touchscreens are predominantly found in graphics tablets. An input pen with a built-in coil generates an electromagnetic field that is detected by the Screen sensors is tracked down. Besides the position, this way, the Tilt angle are determined. The touchscreen monitor, which is suitable for home use, usually does without optical or acoustic methods, as these are cost-intensive. These devices therefore play no further role in the test.

Diagram of the price-performance ratio of touchscreen monitors

Areas of application – touchscreen monitor in use

Application areas for a touchscreen monitor

For the modern touchscreen monitor several fields of application come into consideration. In the financial industry, the touchscreen is mainly used in ATMs and remittance terminals. Transactions can be determined at the touch of a finger. In the retail and wholesale trade, the Advantages of the touchscreens equally appreciated. Finally, intuitive operation shortens workflows and enables faster response times. The touchscreen monitor is therefore nowadays integrated into many Point of sales an integral part of the equipment. In museums, as well as at information points touchscreens are increasingly used. They expand the range of possible information that can be called up at the touch of a finger without much effort. In the field of medical care, touchscreens are also becoming more and more.

Diagnostic and measuring devices can be operated so precisely and quickly. They list all essential information at a glance and allow uncomplicated analysis of patient data. When testing such devices for the medical field, criteria such as robustness and durability are particularly important, as the surfaces can be exposed to various chemicals in everyday working life.

The touchscreen monitor is used in Entertainment area present almost everywhere. For example, it is a component of many in-flight systems, which Waiting time on long-haul flights more pleasant. In navigation systems, the touchscreen allows you to select a destination within a few seconds and presents possible routes. Various complete PC systems now use touchscreen monitors, such as Microsoft’s Surface Studio. The touch screen monitors for the PC are characterized by an Multi-touch input from. Nevertheless, the scope of delivery often includes a Mouse and a keyboard The user can decide for himself whether he wants to use the touch function all the time or only in certain cases. In any case, it’s worth taking a look at the comparison table before a purchase. All criteria are clearly listed in the comparison and can be easily compared with each other. The comparison winner can then be determined after own consideration.

What types of touchscreen monitors are there??

Resistive touchscreen monitor

The resistive touchscreen monitor has several thin layers, which lie on top of each other. Essential transparent electrical foils, which are directly opposite to each other. These consist of a polyester layer on the outside and a glass or. Plastic disk on the inside. The facing surfaces have a Indium tin oxide coating. Several tiny spacers separate the two main foils from each other. The spacers ensure that the films do not touch each other when not in use. A electrical voltage Is generated on one side of the film, which can be sensed by the other layer. As soon as the outermost layer feels pressure, for example from a finger press, the two electrical foils touch each other. This makes a Voltage divider formed, which allows the measurement of an electrical Resistance enabled. A controller detects the location and determines the exact position using an algorithm.


  • Greater dot accuracy
  • Can be operated with pen or gloves
  • Low initial cost


  • surface is sensitive to scratches
  • Gentle touch gestures are registered worse
  • The thickness of the film layers can reduce the clarity of the display

Capacitive touchscreen monitor

The capacitive touchscreen came onto the market 10 years before the first resistive touchscreen. On the Glass of the touchscreen a foil coated with metal oxide is laminated onto the screen. At the edges of the conductive coating, the alternating voltage generates an electric field. With the capacitive Surface touch screens one electrode sits in each corner of the device, which generates the alternating voltage. If you touch the display with your finger, the pressure changes.

Sensors located underneath the screen notice the change in voltage and can determine the exact position. Projected capacitive touch screens use two Matrix levels, which are provided with a conductive pattern. The electrodes in the pattern are transparent and sit directly under the glass. The matrix formation allows for highly sensitive touchscreens and multi-touch inputs. Compared to other touchscreen technologies, this display form is somewhat more cost-intensive, but allows for much higher sensitivity.


  • Very robust and resistant
  • The sensitive surface allows multi-touch input
  • Better contrast and sharpness


  • Due to the sensitive surface, incorrect inputs occur more easily
  • Somewhat more expensive to purchase
  • can only be operated with the finger

Inductive touchscreen monitor

Inductive touchscreen monitor

The inductive touchscreen is connected with the help of a special Input pen operated. A coil is built into the stylus, which generates an electromagnetic field. Sensors on the screen detect the position and tilt angle of the stylus. This technology is especially used in graphics tablets. The stylus has a pressure gauge, which has a number of pressure levels. The higher this number is, the more precisely the touchscreen can measure the pressure.

The quality of the stylus has to be taken into account in the touchscreen monitor test. Image processing programs give different possibilities to use the pressure strength when drawing. Often the covering ability can be determined in this way when drawing. Especially the number of pressure levels plays a big role in the test and comparison when graphics applications are used.


  • Built-in pressure gauge
  • Suitable for graphics applications


  • Requires input pen
  • Expensive to buy

Brief information about leading manufacturers

  • Asus
  • Iiyama
  • HANNspree
  • Acer
  • Fujitsu
  • ViewSonic
  • HP

Touchscreen monitors are tested like this

This is how touchscreen monitors are tested

A touchscreen monitor has to prove itself in the test in different categories prove. Because every prospective buyer has different needs. Some customers would rather buy a particularly energy-saving display. The test estimates this with the amount of annual power consumption. In a comparison, it can be weighed up which screen has the lowest power consumption. Another aspect is Monitor connections are present. If there is no congruence to most connection types, the touchscreen might be nice to look at, but isn’t much use in practical tests, as most buyers don’t have a suitable connection device.

Finally, the test must also take into account the Quality of the display be received. Does it support multi-touch inputs? Does it have a particularly sharp resolution? How good is the contrast? A comparison is always made with other touchscreens to create the most relevant analysis possible. A direct juxtaposition shows at first glance which setting options the touchscreen has.

Are multiple tilt angles supported? Can the position of the monitor be vertical position can be moved? How stable is the included stand of the display? The large touchscreen monitor test addresses all these questions.


The brightness of the touchscreen monitor is rated as “good” in the test Candela per square meter Measured. The maximum value shows the maximum possible brightness of the display.

Response time

In the test, the reaction time measures how fast the monitor has to be Image refreshed. This process only takes a few milliseconds. This value is important in the practical test for gamers, but also movie enthusiasts.


Shows in the test native resolution of the touchscreen monitor on. The specification is made in Pixels.


According to the test, a Multi-touch system essential. It allows multiple inputs in the same period, which gives the user the greatest possible control over the display.

Annual power consumption

If the display is needed for several hours a day, then according to an evaluation estimated the following costs.

Monitor connections

This criterion shows which Connections the touchscreen supports according to the test.

Webcam integration

According to the test, some touchscreens have a Webcam pre-installed.

Common flaws and weak points – I have to pay attention to this when buying a touchscreen monitor!

Frequent flaws and weak points

The touchscreen monitor test also points out any pitfalls that a touchscreen monitor can have during comparison. Poor customer service, for example, is often mentioned in customer reviews. This is especially annoying if you want to exchange the touchscreen monitor because of technical defects. For example, if the monitor is equipped with Dead pixels delivered was. Finally, a suitability test can only be carried out after unpacking. Larger manufacturers usually have a branch office in Germany or at least in the UK.

After unpacking, it’s important to do a test run to check if the device works properly and according to the product specifications. After a successful test, the device can still be tested exchange. Another aspect that is often criticized in touchscreen monitors is the Viewing angle stability. This is especially true for screens that don’t have an IPS panel. If the viewing angle stability is poor, the display can hardly be read.

The touchscreen monitor test 2022 shows which displays have a IPS panel have. In comparison, these monitors are somewhat more expensive, but the Acquisition guaranteed, that you can find excellent screen quality at any viewing angle. Displays with a poor test score also have other shortcomings. This is how it comes to very Slow response times, when you turn on the screen. The picture is slightly delayed. People who like to spend their free time playing computer games usually want a touchscreen monitor that has a very low response time. Otherwise, you sometimes draw the short straw in game-deciding situations.

Thus, it can sometimes lead to a fading of the display in dark settings Flickering come. A critical aspect in a test is of course how smoothly the touchscreen responds to touch inputs. Are multi-touch inputs possible? Does the display register all inputs or do inputs get lost? More general characteristics like the Screen size and resolutions can be compared with each other in a comparison. Before buying one should make a test with the desired display. Maybe there is someone in your circle of friends who owns the display. A short inspection is enough to determine whether the display meets one’s wishes.

Internet vs. specialized trade: where is the best place to buy a touchscreen monitor??

One of the most frequently asked questions is where it is best to buy a touchscreen monitor. The test result is quite obvious. Thus, in the test, the Internet comes off far better. The reasons for this are obvious. On the Internet, you can compare the different devices at your leisure. The comparison table quickly shows which device matches one’s Needs fits best.

All comparison criteria are clearly presented in a table Column listed. The comparison can be made in seconds. Which device has the best Price-performance ratio? What are the display sizes? The reaction times, connections, product dimensions and the respective special features of the touchscreen monitor are compared in the test. The Internet gives the buyer greater control. At least you can check all important characteristics.

where do I buy my touchscreen monitor

Subsequently, one has a good knowledge about which products are offered on the market at all. Such a comparison is not possible at all in stores. After all, there’s not as much choice as on the Internet. You would have to spend hours comparing the individual devices in the store. It is almost impossible to find a match, since you would have to memorize all the key data. The Similarity between the displays is often large.

In contrast, the comparison on the Internet immediately shows which device perfectly fits one’s own requirements. The test also shows the Comparison winner 2022. The product that scored the best test mark in the test run. The test in the specialized trade shows that one sometimes even receives bad consultation from the coworkers. An advantage in a retailer is simply the immediate possibility of a Suitability test of the device.

Things to know& Advisor

Worth knowing & Advisor

The touchscreen monitor is one of the great technological innovations of the last quarter century. It is hard to imagine everyday life without the touchscreen monitor. Any test on the subject of touchscreen monitors should therefore also look at the history of this type of monitor. A comparison with other technological breakthroughs is certainly appropriate. Finally, the touchscreen monitor simplifies access to the Internet for many people. The intuitive and fast control appeals especially to older people who have had no previous experience with computers.

The touchscreen monitor test shows in the Advisor On what to look for when comparing different types of monitors. The test is enriched with numerous exciting Numbers, data and facts around the touchscreen monitor. Who would have thought, for example, that the first touchscreens were developed in the late 1960s?. A groundbreaking experiment finally led to further Breakthroughs, expanded the Color palette and improved the Response times of the devices. The ingenuity of scientists, based on analysis and testing, has enabled us to make this technological leap.

The development of the touchscreen monitor over time

The development of the touchscreen

The development of the touchscreen monitor dates back to the 1960s back. English engineer Eric Arthur Johnson published an article in October 1965 about capacitive touchscreens. At the time, he was working at a British radar research institute that was looking for a monitor solution to control air traffic. His experiment on the development resulted in a short two-page article.

In it, he recorded his findings on a first test device he had developed. In 1967, Johnson expanded his article to include photographs of the prototype he had tested. 1969 he received the US patent for his invention. Almost simultaneously, the Danish engineer developed Bent Stumpe, working for the CERN research center, a touchscreen solution that would simplify control in the control room.

The American inventor George Samuel Hurst is considered to be the developer of the first resistive touchscreen monitor. After a successful test, he was granted a US patent for this invention in the year 1975 received. Although the technology for the touchscreen monitor was already on the market at that time, a comparison with today’s devices shows that some intermediate steps were still needed. Thus the first prototypes were still very inaccurate in the test. One experiment followed the next.

In 1986, with the Atari 520ST color computer the first commercial touch screen monitor was brought to market. Compared to today’s devices, it is of course noticeable that it was still a long step from there to the first smartphones.

Facts and figures about the touchscreen monitor

According to a survey conducted by the market research institute Statista, the global number of touchscreens installed in passenger cars alone increased by almost 30 million increased. The study shows the increased importance of the touchscreen monitor on the road. When used in conjunction with a navigation device, the touchscreen monitor enabled a intuitive operation.

A destination can be selected in seconds. That the touchscreen monitor has become an everyday companion according to a survey suggests a Statista study from 2015 close to. While the majority of the survey participants use a tablet between 5 p.m. and 11 p.m., the number of users remains surprisingly stable over the entire day period.

As already mentioned in the test, there are different touchscreen types. For several years, the number of embedded panels has been increasing rapidly. The study of Statista shows how the manufacture of a touchscreen monitor has changed over time. A few years ago, the touch panel was created exclusively by a few manufacturers. However, the fact that the panel technology now goes back to the layers of the LCD or OLED panels, the manufacturers of these LCD panels can do the job themselves and no longer need suppliers. The technologies mentioned in the test are also used here and in the Comparison Compared to the old devices, there was a clear improvement in the registration of touch inputs. According to the research by Statista, these embedded type panels now have a higher market share than the resistive touchscreen monitor.

Safety instructions for handling touchscreen monitors

Safety tips in the use of touchscreen monitor

When testing the touchscreen monitor, it is important to pay attention to the following safety instructions. Attentively you should read after the purchase the Manual read through. This points out the respective specifications of the monitor. The touchscreen monitor test shows that none of the devices should be exposed to rain or moisture. Otherwise there is a risk of Electric shock. The case should also not be opened under any circumstances.

The test points out dangerous high voltage to, which can exist in the devices. Any repairs should only be done by qualified personnel. The openings and slots in the device case should always be kept clear. The device must not under any circumstances be heat source be set. Only the specified power supply may be used. The touchscreen monitor test mentions which connectors and Connections are included with the device. If there is a dangerous thunderstorm, you should turn off the device and unplug the power cord.

Only plugs that comply with all standards should be used. The touch screen monitor should only be connected to the home computer gently. Failure to do so may result in damage to the device during testing. After setting up the touchscreen monitor, make sure that the device is cleaned and maintained at certain intervals. Especially dust can settle over the openings of the touchscreen monitor and clog them up. When cleaning, the manufacturer’s care instructions must be followed.

Installing a touchscreen monitor correctly in 8 steps

install correctly in 8 steps

Once you have read through the test and compared the different devices, the next step is to install them. In the first step, of course, it is necessary to carefully read the enclosed manual. Especially the safety instructions show which environment is ideal for the respective monitor and what to look out for when installing it Structure should pay attention.

The second step is to find a place where you want to install the touchscreen monitor. If you only use the touchscreen monitor in Home use would like to use, can fall back on the often enclosed base plate. Otherwise, it is necessary to mount the monitor on an articulated arm. In the third step, the monitor must not yet be connected to a power source. Is there a Bottom panel before, so it is necessary to fix them with the enclosed screws.

The monitor must not be subjected to any shocks and must be kept in the Installation be protected from scratches. A stable surfacee is necessary for installation. If the base plate is attached and the monitor now has a stable stand, the fourth step is to connect the power cable to the monitor and a power source.

This depends largely on personal preference. The best viewing angle allows a healthy and entensioned posture in the operation of the touchscreen monitor. Modern operating systems automatically detect that the screen is connected and install the necessary drivers. A readjustment is nevertheless sometimes unavoidable in the seventh step. Color depth, brightness, resolution and refresh rate need to be adjusted by hand occasionally. The setting points can be found in the control panel of the operating system. Further adjustments can be made in the eighth step with the help of the menu buttons, which are located directly on the screen. Often, different presets are offered by the manufacturer, which are suitable for certain application purposes. About a setting that makes it easier to read text or is optimized for watching movies.

10 tips for care& Maintenance

In order to enjoy the touchscreen monitor for a long time, one should definitely follow the Care tips recommended by the manufacturer. This can be found in any User manual. Especially with refunds you have to rely on the goodwill of the manufacturer.

The touchscreen monitor dusty otherwise in the course of time, which endangers the start-up of the display. Likewise, you can’t enjoy the razor-sharp screen of the touchscreen monitor. The colors of the touchscreen monitor fade under possible dirt deposits and if the wrong cleaning agents are used. In the test, the 10 best tips for the care and maintenance of the touchscreen monitor are compiled.

Pull the cable

Pull the cable

Switch off touchscreen monitor

Switch off the touchscreen monitor

Before cleaning, you should always turn off the monitor. In the previous section of the test, the safety hazards were pointed out if the mains plug is still connected.

Choose a lint-free and dry cloth

Choose a lint-free and dry cloth

Do not use cleaners with alcohol or acetone

Do not use cleaners with alcohol or acetone

Only use recommended cleaners

Only use recommended cleaners

Carefully lift the touchscreen monitor when cleaning

Carefully lift the touchscreen monitor when cleaning

Take your time for cleaning

Take your time for cleaning

Do not use paper towels

Do not use paper towels

Finish is attacked by plastic and rubber products

Finish is attacked by plastic and rubber products

Allow the screen the necessary rest periods

Allow the screen the necessary rest periods

Useful accessories

There are a lot of useful accessories for the touchscreen monitor. By comparing, you can find out if there is congruence in the connections. Occasionally it happens that the monitor has a certain connection cable is not included. In the test, you can find out which accessories are included with the respective touchscreen monitor. The most common connection cables are always included. Nevertheless, the comparison is worthwhile. Some touchscreen monitors have more connection cables. Reordering is nevertheless relatively uncomplicated. These cases also usually only apply if you have already installed a touchscreen monitor and now want to install a second display. The connections are either on the Graphics card or on the Mainboard.

Useful accessories

Another accessory is the stand. The test tells you whether or not you can mount the touchscreen monitor in different angle settings. The comparison also breaks down whether the touchscreen monitor comes with a Base plate whether the touchscreen monitor is delivered with a stand or if a stand is already included. Also Wall mount falls into the range of useful accessories. It should go without saying that you can usually only use the monitor with one end device. A ready PC should therefore already be available when the touchscreen monitor is to be used at the desk at home.

Care and maintenance Play an important role, as the test already mentioned, if you want to use the touchscreen monitor for a longer period of time. It is important to follow the manufacturer’s instructions when purchasing care products. These also include a dust brush, which simplifies removing dust from difficult spots on the touchscreen monitor. A comparison of different Care products is worthwhile before making a purchase. Occasionally, speakers can still be connected to the touchscreen monitor. However, as the comparison shows, there are also touchscreens that have built-in speakers.

Can I use the touchscreen monitor with a PC??

You should check which connections are available on the touchscreen monitor and whether they are supported by the home PC.

Which touchscreen should I choose

Which touchscreen to choose?

The choice for a touchscreen is usually not an easy one. There are many good offers. Therefore, it is worth comparing the different devices, which is done in the test. It is important that the touchscreen fits one’s needs.

Can I use a touchscreen monitor with Windows 7??

Windows 7 is the first operating system from Microsoft that supports touch inputs for the first time. However, according to the test, this doesn’t work with all touchscreens, which is why the support of the respective device has to be tested beforehand.

How do I calibrate a touchscreen monitor??

Either via the buttons on the monitor or directly in the control panel of the respective operating system. It’s also worth taking a look at the graphics card driver settings.

How do I connect the touchscreen monitor to the PC??

Connect the included signal cable to the intended port on the PC. According to tests, the DisplayPort, HDMI, DVI, VGA and even USB connections are supported for touchscreens.

How to clean a touchscreen monitor?

When cleaning, the manufacturer’s recommendations should be strictly adhered to. Alcohol-based cleaners have to be avoided.

Where to buy a touchscreen monitor?

The easiest way to get a touchscreen monitor is on the Internet. According to the touchscreen monitor test, there are a lot of dealer sites here. Alternatively, you can buy the touchscreen in an electronics store.

Why choose a touchscreen monitor?

What is an HDMI touchscreen?

This depends heavily on personal usage behavior. As a rule, the touchscreen simplifies input and can speed up workflows. It is especially useful for applications that have a lot of controls in the interface.

What is an HDMI touchscreen??

This is a touchscreen that has an HDMI connection. According to the test, the devices have several connections. A comparison of the displays is worthwhile, as your own PC should support the respective connections.

Does a touchscreen monitor also work with a laptop??

Some laptops already have a built-in touchscreen. If this is not available, you have to look at the laptop’s ports. A comparison with the touchscreens mentioned in the test is then recommended to find the suitable connection type.

Alternatives to the touchscreen monitor

At least on the home PC there are several alternatives available. For example, the high-resolution display that is built into 4K monitors is very much in demand. Of course, traditional LCD displays without touch function can also do all important tasks on the PC. Nevertheless, one should also pay attention to the criteria mentioned in the test here. According to tests, good response times are very important for PC gamers, while graphic designers prefer a display with a good color depth. The comparison makes it possible to quickly weigh up the different monitor systems, so that you can easily find a display that perfectly suits your needs.

Further links and sources

What are the typical uses of a touchscreen monitor?

Touchscreen monitors are used in a wide range of applications. Whether in industry, in the public sector or as a private user, the touchscreen monitor is now used almost everywhere.

To what extent is a touchscreen monitor suitable for the private user??

As already mentioned, there are various fields of application for a touchscreen monitor, also for the private user. There is always the question of what the touchscreen is needed for. Laptops with integrated touchscreens are no longer a rarity. Especially since the introduction of Windows 8, touchscreens have become more and more popular. External touchscreen monitors are often purchased for the same purpose, to make the general workflow more efficient. Thus, a touchscreen already simplifies various steps in standard applications, such as surfing the Internet, browsing documents and photos, streaming video or even operating the music playlist.

What does a touchscreen monitor cost?

Prices can be completely different. If you take a look at the professional graphic design sector, you will quickly notice that the Wacom brand with its Cintiq series is widely used. Devices from Wacom can cost several thousand euros. Nevertheless, this guide is about a more flexible field of application, which is served by rather well-known brands like Acer, Asus or Dell.

Where can I buy a touchscreen monitor?

Touchscreen monitors can be found sporadically in typical electronics retail chains. However, the selection online is much larger. Although there is no personal advice, but the manufacturers actually provide all the necessary information.

What are the alternatives to a touchscreen monitor??

There are few if any alternatives for an external touchscreen monitor. You usually buy it to connect it to your laptop or desktop.

The advantages and disadvantages of the different touchscreen monitors

A PC with a touchscreen fulfills different tasks depending on the user and industry. Who uses touch monitors privately at home, will certainly play games and watch movies on it, which is why a fast response time is important. Commercial users tend to pay more attention to the viewing angle stability and contrast, for example, in order to have simulations and construction applications optimally in view.

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