The electric car does not have it easy. On the one hand, the automotive industry, driven by politics, is visibly building on a buzzing future; on the other hand, there is still skepticism among the population. That’s why the EU or. whose states with consumption penalties for manufacturers and purchase incentives for electric cars, that electric cars become more attractive in comparison. Austria and Great Britain, among others, have special regulations for electric cars. In addition to subsidies, there are many other strategies that the individual countries rely on.
For those who no longer want to opt for a pure combustion engine but not yet for a pure electric car, hybrid cars can be a sensible transition technology. They take advantage of some of the benefits of electromobility, but at the same time do not have to give up the high range of internal combustion engines.
Electric cars as climate savers?
The hopes of policymakers rest on Electric cars. They are to replace combustion engines and ensure mobility that is as climate-friendly as possible. Although there are currently still justified concerns about the climate-friendliness of battery production and recycling. The provision of sufficient electricity from renewable energies is also a problem that has yet to be solved. Nevertheless, many EU countries are choosing to promote electromobility and grant certain privileges and rights to users of electric cars.
The goals are ambitious. Germany, for example, wanted to manage to get a million electric cars on its roads in the shortest possible time. With around 68.000 new registrations in 2018, the company ranked second in Europe behind Norway, but is still a long way from achieving its target. The situation is similar in other European countries. This pursue ambitious goals, However, there is still a lot of work to be done before this can be achieved.
Different types of hybrid cars
Hybrid cars are seen as a bridging technology on the way to pure electric cars. There are many different variants of hybrids each with different strengths and weaknesses. Taking on a special role Mild hybrids a. In them, a small electric motor provides more power when starting, and also allows longer shutdown phases of the gasoline engine than with a conventional automatic start-stop system. The engine is then turned off not only when the car is at a standstill at traffic lights, but also when it is rolling in between, which saves more fuel. They also have a generator that recovers energy during braking.
Mild hybrids are still strongly focused on the combustion engine, which is merely supported by the electric motor. Full hybrids on the other hand, have a much more powerful electric motor that has enough power to drive the car on its own. Due to their small battery (maximum 1.5 kWh), this is often possible, but only for a short time at a time. Nevertheless, the bottom line, especially in stop-and-go operation, is a significant saving in consumption. Potentially even more so with Plug-in hybrids, whose distinguishing feature is a significantly larger battery (10 to over 15 kWh) that is charged via a charging station. This allows them to travel distances of 50 to over 70 kilometers purely on electric power, which is sufficient for most drivers’ daily workloads. However, they only really make sense with daily electricity charging.
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This is how Austria promotes electromobility
Austria’s politicians have a strong interest in expanding electromobility. By the end of 2018, around 18.000 electric cars on Austrian roads, but even then the trend was upward. That is why the Austrian government An e-mobility package launched. The aim of this is to create incentives for electric cars, rather than to impose bans on other forms of propulsion. However, life is becoming increasingly difficult for the latter due to the tightening of the standard consumption tax (NoVA) and vehicle tax.
The mobility package has introduced various regulations for electric cars. For example, the speed limit for such vehicles has been lifted within certain limits in Austria. Since they are emission-free, they are allowed to drive 130 km/h in (specially marked) IGL 100 zones without being prosecuted for it. Thus, users of electric cars can on 440 kilometers throughout Austria Drive faster than other road users. In addition, cities and municipalities have been recommended to make bus lanes available for electric cars and to make short-term parking zones free of charge. Recommendations that have, however, hardly been implemented so far.
By comparison, regulations in the U.K
Great Britain is one of the biggest promoters of electromobility in Europe. In 2018, there were already around 60.000 vehicles were registered, putting the country in third place in Europe. What’s more, the UK is in the area of charging stations at the forefront. The European Commission advises that there should be one public charging station per ten cars. Despite Brexit, Great Britain has taken up this recommendation and expanded its charging infrastructure to this end. The goal is to have a maximum distance of 200 km between two charging stations.
Furthermore, the United Kingdom has decided to, to eliminate the company car tax for electric cars. As of this year, the non-cash benefits resulting from the private use of electric company cars are no longer taxable (as is also the case in Austria). Last but not least, the United Kingdom, like many other countries, subsidizes electric cars, although the subsidy amounts were reduced this year.
Subsidies for electric cars in the EU countries
EU countries are focusing on subsidy strategies to promote electromobility. This includes, among other things, the fact that electric vehicles are allowed to park free of charge in many European cities. In addition, Oslo (Norway) has decided that such vehicles should be driving in the bus and cab lane allowed to move faster in heavy traffic. In addition, many countries are opting for environmental premiums to provide purchase incentives for electric cars. A particular pioneer in e-mobility in Europe is Norway. The Scandinavian country waives VAT on purchase, registration tax and annual vehicle tax for electric cars. It is also continuously expanding its infrastructure and promoting the image of electric cars.
However, there are also countries that are not yet particularly committed to electromobility. For example, in Estonia, Croatia, Lithuania, Malta and Poland no special subsidies for electric cars. The respective results speak for themselves. In these countries, the market share of electric cars is extremely low, while in the other European countries it has grown continuously.
Other strategies for promoting electromobility
European countries have a broad portfolio of options to promote electric mobility. Here, not least, bans are resorted to. Thus Internal combustion engines to disappear completely from the roads over time. The Netherlands, the United Kingdom and Slovenia, for example, have decided that from 2030, no new vehicles may be registered that have an internal combustion engine. The same target is set in France for 2040.
Furthermore, many EU countries are choosing to promote their electric cars through tax breaks and to offer users Make access as easy as possible. In addition, there are many countries that provide purchase and scrapping premiums to make the purchase of electric cars attractive. People in France and Slovenia receive a particularly large amount of money, but there are also numerous purchase bonuses for such vehicles in Austria, Ireland, Sweden and Germany.