Tunisia: the “social question” reports with violence

The Islamists hope that they make economic progress with the moralization of society and everyday life. They proceed against opposition and trade unions with means that contradict moral tunnels

The phase of supposed standstill of the revolution is in advance: the "social question" Reports with violence. The trade union movement is currently published as the most important counterpart player of the government camp, while the Islamists as the most important ruling party obviously fail, social and economic improvements. Meanwhile, part of its base relies on more or less violent "Cleaning"Campaigns that are against "Corrupt", but sometimes against trade unionists. In December, this led to iers between social movements and appendages of government and Islamists. So it came about the evening of the 22. December on the island of Djerba to violate interim cases.

Even those who have never been to Tunisia, was allowed to know Tataouine with some likelihood. Not the city in the southern Tunisia, but her surrounding area. For in the aworldly area on the edge of the Sahara, a part of the film material for Star Wars was filmed in the 1970s: the scenes of the famous film series, which is on the Wissenplaneten "Tatoo" Play, emerged there.

The fictional name "Tatoo" Of course comes from the original name tatouine. On a high plateau in 600 meters high over the sea level, the constructions for the film decoration can be visited today.

But in a young time, Tatouine did not make as a tourist attraction in the country as a tourist attraction. On the 18th. October 2012 there was the first political murder in Tunisia after the end of the dictatorship of Zine El-Abidine Ben Ali, the on the 14th. January 2011 after multilingual mass protest genturged prasides, frosted. Under the old regime, now and then occurred that politically abusive contemporaries were contacted, sometimes too curious foreign journalists (the summit is in a black hole of the Internet).

Strategy of coves with democratic parties

The main party of the Tunisian Islamists, en-Nahdha, then persecuted by the inheritance regimes and (if it could be available to their trail) into the prestiges, had explicitly a strategy of the covenant to the provision of democratic powered strategy for years with decided non-Islamist force – left , Liberals and Arab-nationalist parties – persecuted. The visible expression of this strategy was the formation of the "Coalition of the 18. October", Easy to the common hunger strike of political activists from different powered, on the edge of the "World information species" in Tunisia in 2005 (the summit is in a black hole of the Internet).

This strategy has maintained the main direction within EN-Nahndha – one, today more than earlier, heterogeneous party – also in the following years. She guided u.a. according to the elections to the election meeting, the currently reigning provisional parliament, of 23. October 2011 to form the "Troika". It is the government coalition, which from the three parties en-Nahdha (Islamist), "Congress for the Republic" (CPR) of the earlier human rights activist and burial nationalist MONCEF Marzouki and Ettakatol (or "Forum for work and democratic freedom rights", A genuine Social Democratic Party).

The strongest power among the Tunisian Islamists – the for that of opponating Islamists, and hardliners such as the Salafists, the "Tread" In the case of ideological principles, it was therefore definitely based on parliamentary democracy as the framework of their political trade.

However, this seems to be different in parts of the party. In the face of an at best stagnating economic situation, persistent poverty, especially in the custain-proof regions in the interior, the absence or deduction of foreign investment – in 2012, they fell against in 2010, last year under the old dictatorship, by 15.3% – and their lack of Concepts for an overcoming of such problems begin to get parts of the Islamist base to get panic.

"Social justice" and moralization of society and everyday life

In the core, EN-Nahdha, like almost all Islamist formations, has an economic illiberal ideology (U.a. Because the original Islam, as he is reflected in the Koran, was created as a merchant religion in the context of caravan trading and because it will be rejected to Marxism).

Nevertheless, such parties are also a claim to a claim "More social justice", and are also perceived in relevant parts of society. Your recipe for this is the moralization of society and everyday life.

If you created this, the corruption also disappear. But then problems of uneven distribution, the attachment of wealth have been accumulated because they declare themselves at the core of immoral. Only: in the world of 21. Century, these recipes work as an approach to the overcoming of real social problems (which vacates today at international level),.

Parts of the governmental league, respectively of their dissatisfied trend, respond to a kind of flight forward. They fold all the more fierce campaigns "Cleanup", Against corrupt and novilization of structural corruption under the old regime, there is indeed enough – against parties of the Ben Ali dictatorship, but also against other tarrings of immoral.

And in the eyes of many of them also unionists. Form the member unions of the Tunisian Trade Union Train Association Ugtt (750.000 members in a country with ten million inhabitants) but at the moment their dentes and strongest opponents.

The leagues for the protection of the revolution

In such mobilization campaigns, the trail of En-Nahdha serve an instrument, the so-called Ligues Pour La Protection de la Revolution (ie "League" or "Bunden for the protection of the revolution"To). These are surprising once local self-administrative organs – such as district committees to prevent plunders in homes, at the hour of the police resort during the overthrow in January 2011 – who had been abandoned from the middle of the year 2011 by many previous members.

The remains of these, uninfected institutions to maintain a minimum of security during the revolutionary days were collected by the Islamists, so to speak. And in the follow-up time with its own people, piled up again and converted: into an acclamation body for ideology and government policy of en-Nahdha, and around "On behalf of the revolution" Build prere on your opponents. Now the leagues also function as campaign organs.

The new party: Nidaa Tounès, Appeal Tunisia

At that 18. October, from which the entrance was mentioned, besiegen the trail of one of these names "League" The seat of the newly grounded party Nidaa Tounès ("Call Tunisia", "Appeal Tunisia") In the Sudtunese Tataouine. Nidaa Tounès is a party that is due to the early Prime Minister of the Transitional Government (from the end of February 2011 to the elections to the catching assembly of 23. October 11), Beji Caid Essbsi Alias "BCE", is built up.

Her accused of both hands of the Ben Ali regime as well as more liberal or burgeral force, which stood skeptical to the old regime, but today the opposition to the Islamists – and to the outgoing from them "Threat of our modern lifestyle" – consider the main resistance of the present.

According to surveys, this new coalition can currently expect around 30 percent of the votes and is therefore approximately equal to en-Nahdha (also around 30 percent). At third place follows the explicit left collection movement Front Populaire – coarse clay with "Folk front" to translate, or from the sense more "Front of the subclasses" -, which is on the upswind and is currently around 7 percent in surveys.

All other power lies rather among further, including the two coalition partners of en-Nahdha, ie the two goenger parties CPR (nationalist-liberal) and Ettakatol (Social Democratic), which bums between 3 and 4 percent.

The death of a trade unionist

In the siege, there were bugs and body clashes, whose closer history has so far unclear. In the end, at least the local party responsible and trade unionists – Lotfi Nakdh (sometimes also "Nagdh" or "Naguedh" transcribed from Arabic). He succeeds his suffered injuries, claiming one, or ultimately died in a heart attack occurred, say the others. The opposition in parliament then reached en-Nahdha, spoke of a political murder and called for the Minister’s Jerkiness).

On the evening of 22. December repeated the events in parts. On that Saturday, around 2 gathered on the island of Djerba.000 Trail of Nidaa Tounès to a public event. The widow and religious of Lotfi Nakdh were also. Around 2.000 Handle of the Ortens "League to defend the revolution" but besieged the building, blew the event and – this is the allegation of besieged – "the participants took as a hostage".

The expression is perhaps a bit too strong, but it is in any case a unseen process of influence of political rights of opposition.

Protests and the union

Between the two passes, in October in Tataouine and 22. December on Djerba, a lot was happening in the countryside. Several regions of the interior were depressed by fierce, socially motivated mass protests. In Gabès, the state of exception was given at the end of October. From the 27. November took place in the provincial town of Siliana – about 125 kilometers southwest of the capital Tunis – a regional general strike.

Together with the police, the latter satisfied hunting rifles with shotgunmunition, around 300 people injured. About twenty people had to be, with eye injuries, for medical emergency treatment to Tunis foliage, n. On the next weekend, the protests began to other city in the interior of Tunisia (D.H. Custainable landscape) to access.

In that phase, however, the union roof association Ugtt still responded by climbing in some middle-bades to solidarity demonstrations for the inhabitants in Siliana, but contained a mobilization in the capital Tunis or nationwide level. On 01. December concluded the Militant Ugtt in Siliana and the Tunisian Central Government an agreement, which "to satisfy the situation" Shore should.

It sees the disempowering of the controversial and post-certified Governor Ahmed Ezzine Mahjoubi. He does not lose his post formally, but does not exude his powers and gives them to his previous deputy.

At the same time, according to the Agreement, MABs are planned to improve the social and economic situation of the location population, but harrow harrows so far.


On the oral level, the riots sounded from the 02. December again. But on 04. December came in the capital Tunis to a serious incident. There the Ugtt, the union roof association, had to a rally on 04. Invoked in the afternoon. The reason for this was the memory of the death day Farhat Hached: This historical figure of the Tunisian trade union movement, anti-colonialist to early hour and the land of the Ugtt in 1946, was on 05. December 1952 was murdered by the French intelligence service. He forms an integration figure in the Tunisian society, far beyond the ranks of trade union members.

But the "League for the defense of the revolution" rearranged the trade union house. 500 to 700 with stallions and other objects armed-armed people surrounded the building, and the trade unionists terrified an attack, whereupon their folder service in turn came with butps in action. In the following minutes, there was a violent scalance, in which the appendant of Islamists with corpulum attacks. Ten persons were injured more or less seriously.

An agreement

Under the shock of the event, the UGTT then decided immediately, for the 13. December through Tunisia for a one-way general strike – as a warning – called. But in the 48 hours before the contested event rudded the union roof association back. According to this information, many trade unionists considered a call to the general strike after ample creation for.

One is not sure to possess the appropriate force ratio for it, and in the case of a defeat, the Tunisian trade unionist has long-term knight. Instead, government and UGTT concluded a (very general formulated) agreement in eight points whose most important corner points are that:

  1. one "Common Investigation Commission" For the events on 04. December (D.H. the "For the protection of the revolution" Before the seat of the Ugtt organized startup, and the beating there will be used thereafter),
  2. a law enforcement of strikers and violent individuals in this context is,
  3. as well as the government "The central role of the UGTT as an important partner in the process of development and social peace" (Rhubarb Sulz) acknowledged.

Meanwhile, State Prassident Moncef Marzouki was on 17. December 2012 in Sidi Bouzid – so on that place where on 17.12.2010 the self-burning of the boy "Precarene" Mohammed Bouaciz brought the stone of the roll of rolls into wheels – for a speech for the second anniversary of the beginning of the revolution.

Also stones flew. A resident called him for him: "We do not want you here!" Another called: "They came here a year ago and promised that something will change within six months. And nothing happened!" Moncef Marzouki answered that the government over "no wand" fruge.

On 20. December, the Prasident in Tutur in Sudtunesia was thrown with sweets this time, and in Kebili, unemployed, the spirit of the rebellion in Tunisia was not allowed to disappear in the bottle in Tunisia so quickly…

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