Like the official Paris the accusation of the last Volkermord of the 20. Century – in Rwanda – have played a leaving negative role, stripping might
It has moved to the relations between France and Rwanda, 14 years after the Volkermord, who took place in the early 1994 in the East African country. That things move is currently undeniable – only is still unclear where.
The ratio of French politicians to the state with today eight million inhabitants is necessarily complicated. However, the officers of the torching today in Paris have borne their – active and passive – proportion to their – active and passive – that there is 800.000 to one million people died during the then genocide.
Some critics even speak of one "Genozide Made in France". Even if the relatives of the Cabinet ruling now in Paris could partially distance themselves from this heritage, the French state is in direct political responsibility.
The murder in Rwanda lasted from 7. April to early July 1994. The victims were amongwhraid of the minority of the Tutsi. But also with Tutsi married relief of the Hutu population majority, political oppositionalism from this population group or simply critics on the planned and executed Volkermord were slaughtered. Happow of the racist "Hutu Power"-Movement and her moored milities threw the Tutsi, they lived like blood vacuums from the work of the Hutu population majority.
A legend, which in essential parts are impacted that the German and later Belgian colonial rule between 1884 and the independence 1960 had ethnized social differences in the former agrarian society: who was relatively coarse and light-skinny, were of them – thanks to supposedly modern science in the form of "Breed-" and "Folk customer" – for the relief of an alleged race of "Tutsi" explained. The smaller and dark-skinned inhabitants were considered "Hat" classified and stupid, stubbornly and only too low activities explained.
Already since the "Hutu revolution" From 1959, a year before the independence, and since new massacers in 1963, Tutsi had been murdered again and again. And the slaughtering were encouraged, among other things, by the local Catholic Church.
And France’s role? The official French politics interpreted the situation in Rwanda after the pattern of colonial influence: there was one of Tutsi – often children 1963 fled exile-rwander – Cooked rebel movement, the RPF (Rwandan Patriotic Front), which was inaccessible in English-speaking neighboring Uganda. At her top, an officer called Paul Kagame, who only spoke English and no French and had enjoyed part of his military education in the USA.
Since 1990, the RPF was in the war with the Rwandan regime, in whose shadow of the Volkermord by the "Hutu Power"-Motion was prepared planned. For Francois Mitterrand in the area Francois Mitterrand was clear: it was to prevent the case of an outdoor post – by the language border – to prevent French influencephare in Central Africa. Because he, so the calculus, then also the east of the then Zaire – today Democratic Republic of the Congo – in motion, and the dictatorship of the aging Mobutu Sese Seko is no longer holding.
So similarly it came in the incurred too. In 1997, the fully Mobutu dictatorship broke into itself, the dominant French influence was questioned. After the change of power in favor of Laurent-Desire Kabila (which was murdered in 2001 and was released by his son Joseph Kabila as a prasident), Kinese, Americans and others were increasingly mixed in the Congo.
Only the crisis cooker in eastern Central Africa by the Volkermord in Rwanda, through the prevailing military victory of the RPF on the previous Rwandan regime and through the following escape of hundreds of thousands of Hutu (civilians who are before the "Revenge of Tutsi" Fighted, together with the Volkermord organized in militia, was only quite fueled. The fleeing Rwandan Hutu love themselves in the east of the then Zaire and today’s account, which then became the powder for powder – and the RFF’s official army of Rwanda returned to them there.
From 1997, it was followed several wars in the former Zaire and later Congo, which were compared from observers with a world war in Europe and cost 4.5 million people’s life. Not least because of the East of the Congobecken extremely rich in rare raw materials such as the mineral Koltan – which is used in most mobile phone phones -.
Search for one "fracture" With the burden of the youngest past
Today, in official France, partly a politician generation is in power that "back then" – 1994 – either no direct responsibility wore or could not be identified with it. Although this self-view is not completely correct. For the then government spokesman and household minister from 1993 to 95 nobody other than the current Prasident Nicolas Sarkozy.
However, the relatively young Sarkozy still relatively young Sarkozy was not directly involved in the decision-making expiration, which were attributed to the disaster in Rwanda with contributors and were located in the prasident office, in the Auf- and in the Ministry of Defense. So he did not meet the decision that French militars in Rwanda were coming to the side of the country’s official army of the country in Rwanda to stop the advance of the RPF on Kigali. That advance, which in fact prepares an end to the genocide.
So far, France was difficult to admit any guilt or responsibility in relation to Rwandan Volkermord. And this all the more, when at that time in Paris both coarse political camps together: 1994 prevailed one "Cohabitation", an allegedly "socialist" Prasident Mitterrand was a conservative-liberal government cabinet under Edouard Balladur against. Until recently, the official France held iron on the thesis of the alleged "Double Volkermord" (Double Genocide): The RPF has just as indiscriminately massacrated Hutu, as the militias of the "Hutu Power"-Regimes – the 1994 in Kigali was in power and supported by Paris – Tutsi Murdents.
This claim serves in reality only to the very real difference between a war leading army such as the RPF – who without doubt some crimes are pleasurable – on the one hand and the plan for destroying an entire population group on the other hand to be blurred. Otherwise the former French position is only condemned.
In the direction of this blurring of this significant difference, the preliminary investigation went in 2006, which would love the former French anti-terror investigative judge Jean-Louis Bruguière against the Fruheren RPF boss and current Rwandan State President Kagame.
As a military boss of the rebels, so Bruguière, Kagame in April 1994 wore responsibility for the launch of the machine of the former Prasident Juvenal Habyarimana – which may have been killed by the RPF, but as well as a coup by the extremist force within his regime to the Pictures may have fallen. Anyway, after the death of Habyarimanas, and during whose regime was already deep in the crisis, the most brutal avalanche of the "Hutu Power"-Movement alone makes power and started the Volkermord. Of course, this was neither a spontaneous response to the assassination still on the rise of the RPF, but had been planned and propagandist for years.
A rough number of machets, with which the majority of the victims was slaughtered, had been ordered in China in 1993 – and not for agricultural purposes. However, in the name of the French judiciary, in the name of the French, the fact that he has caused the Prasident’s matt – if – probably – Kagame had become the clutter of Volkersmord to the Tutsi. So at his own population group.
The outcry in Kigali was all the stronger, as the French judiciary until then, throughout delivery applications for planner and head of the genocide in Rwanda, who had lived in Rwanda, which live on the ground France,. Immediately after the announcement from Bruguières Degree against Kagame, Rwanda also dismissed diplomatic relations with France and addressed an inquiry committee on the French role in the 1994 Volkermord. Their examination report was supposed to appear early July 2008, so it had been announced a few weeks ago, but still stands out.
Bruguière approaches Nicolas Sarkozy and ran in June 2007 for his party, the UMP, in Sudwest France at the parliamentary elections. However, unsuccessful – and shortly thanks to his political commitment, he had to influence the judge’s office. And yet Sarkozy realized that he repeatedly further concerned the former French policies of the way of moving away and ignoring what the Rwandische side – but also about French solidarity initiatives such as the Association Survie – repeatedly practiced premieges on the role of own state in Rwanda 1994, not just could operate.
There had to be found a solution to this "Brand" to sweeten and the obstacle for the international relations of France from the way to room. Only this could not happen without dedicated criticism of his political processes. A problem for Nicolas Sarkozy, who in the election campaign again and again against an imaginar slope to national "masochism" and "Bubertum" was drawn to field.
Now it seems as if the serious problem has been declared at least. Sarkozy appointed earlier activists in the humanitarian area in the previous year, and convinced Anhander’s global intervention "To enforce human rights", Bernard Kouchner, to the French Foreign Minister. His ideas for the design of international politics, which often exhibit Western bonds for interventions, are often controversial.
However, due to his personal past, Kouchner, who, in 1994 on behalf of internationally tatil doctors organizations, often directly with Paul Kagame over the establishment "Humanitarian corridors" has negotiated between the war parties, a positive reputation in Rwanda. Although theoretically all diplomatic relationships canceled, at least frozen, he visited in January of this year as Deer Minister Kigali – for a few hours.
And during the first time the French politics always the 7. April, Anniversary of the Beginning of the Rwandan Volkermord, had ignored, said this year, Kuchner’s State Secretary for Human Rights Policy – the Senegalese French French Rama Yade – as the first government politician at a commemorative event of Ruanden in Paris. Originally, Madame Yade should even go to Kigali and there at the memorial for 14. Participate in the anniversary of the genocide, however, had spaced from this project.
In her Paris speech, she spoke, as before her, it was expressive of serious "Errors" Both the "International Community" and "including France" in the spring 1994. "failure" So now also can be summoned from the mouth French members of the government, although they are not "crime" speak by French.
Delivery of Rwandan mass mortgages from France, Germany…
Also in the judiciary is now movement. For years, the delivery procedures, which were either by the Rwandan state or by the International Court of Justice to the crimes committed in Rwanda – which was approached in the Tanzanian Arusha -. The French justice just did not seem to come to. At times, arrest warrants were not exhibited or not enforced. Every time they have been accused of being accused of thinkers or main characteristics of the genocide, since Rwanda does not have sufficient guarantees for a rule of law.
But now everything in river. For the first time France translated on 5. June this year a genocide repository at the International Court of Justice in Arusha. Dominique Ntawukuriryayo (66), the responsibility for the massacre 25 as a subprace of Gisagara.000 fled Tutsi should have been carried on a hull, but his fault denounces, lived since 1999 in France. He had been arrested in October 2007 in Carcassonne, a court approved his delivery to Arusha. The Supreme French Court pointed to the 7. May his contradiction against the delivery request.
Two other defendants, the priest Wenceslas Munyeshyaka and the early Prize, Laurent Bucyibaruta had previously been imprisoned and released several times. But they will definitely sit in the Parisian sante fehrnis and wait for their process, who should now be made by the French judiciary himself – this had authorized the International Court of Justice in Arusha in November 2007.
To the grounds, in addition to the lengthy back and forth to their detention and delivery, also the upwards of the mandate of the international judges for the latest next year. By the end of this year, therefore, all processes still outstanding in Arusha should be processed against genocide participants.
On the other hand, the same supreme Court canceled on Wednesday, 9. JUL The delivery license for Claver Kamana, which the Rwandan resist as one of the 96 main planners of the genocide. Previously, the judges had arranged in Chambery to override him directly to the Rwandan. Over the delivery of the 72-yearly, the appellate court of Lyon must now decide. At the end of May of this year, an appeals court in Toulouse had decided not to deliver the 53-year-early Militar Marcel Bivugabagabo immediately to Rwanda, but to appeal to the decision on the next September.
Previously, the Rwandan authorities should provide new proofs for the identity and the fault of the defendant as well as the punishments that threaten him in the event of a delivery. This decision had been severely criticized by the Rwandan Judiciary: the public prosecutor’s office at the Supreme Court, Jean Bosco Mutangana, held a press conference in Kigali. Rwanda presented all necessary documents, he stressed.
Meanwhile, however, the procedure that Bruguière had strained in 2006 continues to continue. And Jean-Louis Bruguière has found a doctorate, in the form of the Spanish examination judge Fernando Removing Merelles. He has on 6. FebruRar this year an international indictment procedure against 40 high-ranked Rwandan people strained, among them 11 generals. Without exception all the ranks of the RPF and become of him "Volkermords", the "Crimes against humanity" and the "terrorism" accused.
The indictment of the Volkermord against RPF-belonging is considered by Spain as absurd as in the French – fact that it is a twisting of the events in Rwanda 1994. Only: What clearly derived in France from the so-called state region – namely the desire to gain the own nation again a bleeding vest and eliminate the coarse stains of the allegation of a genocide participation or overcover – obeys in Spain no objective interest. The Spanish judge really believes that the Spanish judge really believes to uncover a thick scandal at today’s top of the Rwandan state. I probably because he first gave to his early French office colleague Bruguière too much.
At the beginning of May, the new Rwandan Aufemister Rosemary Museminali had to cancel a planned visit to Brussel: a high-ranking member of their delegation, the boss of the Rwandan foreign news service, had not received a visa – because against him a whole Schengen area of the Spanish judge. The minister preferred to cancel the entire visit, as it is not to the Belgian, "to dictate the composition of the Rwandan delegation".
This experience ensured Furor at the government in Kigali. Prasident Kagame rose at the summit of the African Union, at the end of June in the Egyptian Sharm El-Scheikh, on the podium and weathered against the "moral" European judge, which determined against African leadership. While it is unimaginable that an African judiciary exhibited a similar arrest warrant against a European head of state – and it is enforced.
Paul Kagame called on all the Landers of the African Union to explain such investigative procedures and international detention warrants on their ground for disgraceful. As a similar, he looked at a press conference in Kigali.
At the same time, he announced at the end of June if the French and Spanish judiciary continued so, Rwanda will prepare the pleasure to open processes against the Volkermord of entangled French militars. You have 500 names that can be put on the table. Because similar to Spain, Belgium or France, Rwanda also complains about the "universal competence" his judiciary for accusadements, which affect Volkermord- and similar deeds, for themselves.
Arger between Arusha and Kigali: Sex and luxury in the prison for Volkermordplanner?
This game is even more complicated by this game with several parties in that the International Court of Justice in Arusha has now created itself with the Rwandan Justice. At the end of May, the Tribunal refused to sit in Arusha, which lets one of his prisoners in other countries – such as the West African Mali, Benin or in Swaziland – and preparations for his foreseeable retention, the transfer of defendants to the Rwandan Justice: These offer no Rule of law guarantees.
In the background are several ies. On the one hand Rwanda raises the tribunal in the Tanzanian Arusha, for the Volkermordian participants condemned there "Luxury" to entertain. In fact, the Court not only tries to adhere to international standards for its prisoners – which already in the African continent as an exceptionally valid rights, but also ies it extremely coarsent. So have the in Arusha-seated taders, planners and "Thinker" of genocide not only access to radio, television and a library – but not to the internet.
You also have a right to two hours "Intimate visit" of their spouses or watten, and to sexual relationships in the prison – per day. This was not allowed to represent the standard in European detention centers. In Rwanda, where the detention centers are overlapped – the country with 8 million inhabitants has 59.500 prisoners, these are exactly as many as in France, and the processes against exporting the genocide are only a cause for that – this is considered a scandalous luxury, especially for genocide.
In any case, a blatant mismatch was allowed between the treatment of other adherence lingers in the region – which may be quite criticized – on the one hand, and the treatment of this particular category of fans (which were involved in preparation and carrying out of a vorter) on the other side.
Conversely, you claim in Arusha, in Rwanda there was no guarantees for an independent jurisdiction. Witnesses were not appended or threatened. And the treatment of the prisoners do not comply with the necessary standards. This has some material causes: Since not only the overlay of the fehrnis, but also the attempt, by a revived village classability in the form of the "Gacaca" to work up the genocide.
These village tribunals whose negotiations will take place especially above the "small cycling" judge in the gearbox of the genocide and a kind of cathartic process within the Rwandan society excludes. In recent years, there were a million processes in front of these "Gacaca" instead, and judgments were against around 9.000 people fallow. That these processes – and, where appropriate, the detention conditions – not always so high standards can comply as that in front of an international special course, the some "Exceptional" condemned, is obvious.
On the other hand, Rwanda Extra has abolished the death penalty in order to apply in Arusha, but also in national judicial systems in other countries – such as France – deliveries of genocidal and their overall job to his judiciary. In the first time, the German judiciary has brought a genocide repayment for the first time in order to bring him to the randical judiciary.
On the 7. July, Callixte Mbarushimana was taken by an international arrest warrant at the International Airport of Frankfurt / Main, from where he wanted to fly out to Saint Petersburg. The earley employee of a UN program in Kigali is accused of having participated in 1994 at the murder of hundreds of his colleagues who were Tutsi,. His amption could take up to two months, since Germany has no special delivery agreement with Rwanda, but is considered likely.
One last motive for the conflict between Arusha and Kigali is that the Rwandan judiciary is also instrumentalized in individual cases by the Rwandan government from political reasons. Although the regime of Paul Kagame is democratically chosen, but the government’s ridge is still formed by a military organization – which converted into a regular army, early scrapers. Their relatives are not only used to militars of rupid colloquial forms, commission and obedient. They were also – after the conquest of Kigali 1994, which was quite a historical merit, as they prepared an end to the genocide – Father at surmount "Dirty wars" involved.
For after the fall of the ancient regime in Rwanda and the escape of the Hutu militias in the East Kongo, today’s Rwandan army sat down. And not just to put the craftsman’s craft, but also with the long-cherished goal of controlling the rich raw material deposits in eastern Kongo and to use and enrich them to them. In the study of these raw materials and the numerous local conflicts in the eastern Congo, there were numerous gray areas involving events of the RPF and / or Rwandan militar.
Some of the nozzles of the regime and his army are therefore quite "false", or have a lot to hide. Accusation, "genocidere ideology" To spread – this is a criminal offense in Rwanda, fundamentally comprehensible reasons, one thinks of the Haspropaganda against Tutsi from 1994 and its impact – so many times critical journalists were allocated: the pretext is sometimes dominated, but the charge.
The RPF-wanted Rwanda goes against the first time "own" War criminal
In order to fight against the Rwandan Justice was partisan and protect RPF militar against justified pre-rejects, Kigali has reacted now. At the beginning of June 2008, the prosecutor at the International Court of Justice in Arusha, Hassan Bubacar Jallow, for the first time charged against former soldiers and officers of the RPF: these had in June 1994, during the war and the advance on Kigali, 13 innocent churches – among them three bishops – and two more civilians massacred, Jallow explained in a speech on 4. June.
The militar had found dead Tutsi, who had hidden in a monastery, and then killed the local church people who probably had no responsibility to the fall. The Rwandan Justice then announced that the responsibility for this forelection examine and punish the culprits.
Then on 11. June of this year four high-ranking RPF officers, among them the General Wilson Gumisiriza, arrested by the Rwandische Ostistra. You will now be prepared for a war criminal process. For the first time with them with them more relevant and even higher officers of the RPF army, which have so far been presented as national heroes, in court. Two of them have now filed a consideration and confess themselves guilty to deny the other two.
Meanwhile, Rwanda presents another, from the point of view of its ruling important claim: after the expiration of the mandate of the judge in Arusha, according to the Attorney General at the Supreme Court at the end of June, should be relocated the seat of the International Court of Justice to Rwanda itself. In order to be there according to the intended end of the tribunal in Arusha, at the end of 2008 or early 2009, with international Madant about genocidal judgments. Whether Rwanda can produce a consensus, however, is questionable.