Four glimps to be home

The historical and socio-political context of the Bauhaus Award "Residential note"

That Alexander broke the "inhabitus of our city" is commonly known. That he also attested a "home fetishism" of our society. This meant he has a behavior that first "cleanliness and tidiness" and only on the needs of people and their relationships is aligned with each other. And he appreciated that as an obstacle for a good-friendly living almost as high as the sterilitat of some coarse settlement.

Whereby this is such a thing with the residential surfaces. Not only big enough, affordable and commod, it should be flexible, your own home. To adapt in a strong mabe to himself inherent life situations, the desiderat has long been recognized and named. The non-determined areas of the real estate apartments with their multiple coatings offer no more than those – aiming for the supposed utensils of the small family – floor plans of modern housing construction. Also the popularity, which is Loft Enjoy a certain, mostly freelance clientele, tie speaks. Nevertheless, you have to be stated that in home construction almost only in the upscale market segment moves something – and then mostly in the service area with Doorman– or in Boarding house-Concepts.

In the mabe, however, how "Precariousness" As a keyword for the description of the social reality of Germany, today the question arises how living for those who live on the edge of the subsistence minimum. If now with the Bauhaus Award (housing note) is reacted to current "housing grade", then it is implicitly addressed by the (self) understanding of a timetable, normally closed in housing construction.

To the history of the housing question

In order to illustrate this, a look into the history is of notes: Since the predemal, the "housing question" was more and more compensated for a topic of politics, and at the same time the tendency to crystallize himself to understand and operate housing as a family policy. On the other hand, after the introduction of the freedom of business in parts of the craft and outside the coarse city, only zogel’s socially ever more problematic identity of work and residential community under patriarchal supervision, the so-called "logistics". Only although processible, with multi-faceted supervision went (and go) such changes, which (also) are behavioral and mentality due. Partly interrogated side by side, partly in each other, many different threads and fall knitness had to come together only to a topic.

While the cooperative movement stomp on self-help in housing provision, the social hygiene movement organized in the 1870s built mainly on state and municipal instruments. One of their most important bases was that the soil of the citys can be hoped to prevent the rising of a danger of "masematic" diligence. Nevertheless, it took place to identify apartments as a behavioral milieu and pulled the conclusion, they have to be reasonably coarse and well equipped. Nevertheless, at the end of the 19. Century the "home question" – as a socio-political problem – still virulent.

Starting with the Belgian "Law on the working apartments" (1889) About the Spanish "Law on cheap apartments" (1911) to the German "Housing law" (1918) shows ancillary purposeful target formulation throughout Europe. They were an attempt to unite many hitherto far-scattered maws for the beneficacular care and strengthen. But the structural framework, within which the actual life was located, sometimes came to strange hybridization, somewhere between social compensation and highly successful returns.

Even the prominent "Margarethenhohe" in Essen is like this: The crupping settlement is on the one hand in the influence of the raising, reformeric garden city movement, but on the other hand obeys the paternalistic ideas of the work housing construction, whose total arrangement, as the historian Clemens Zimmermann formulated, "the worker Train-considered feel of peace and obviousness causes ". The field of tension of circumstances and acquisitions has been sophisticated for a housing construction, which has been seen in many places as a socio-political challenge and also played a central role in the urbanization process.

In Europe, this was certainly not unprecedented; But globally, however, the "housing note" remained such a serious as serious problem. But only in 1976, the United Nations invited to the first World Office Conference. Although the declaration of Vancouver found quite clear words:

We realize that the problems of human living is not isolated from the social and economic development of the countries and associated with existing unjust, international relations.

But in practice, this did not lead to significant reactions. Only the Habitat Conference 1996 (in Istanbul) as well as Urban 21 (in the summer of 2000 in Berlin) caused a certain consciousness of consciousness awarded the worldwide housing problem: previously the geared attitude in it, strict Slum-Clearence to operate (resulting in violent elimination of slums or squatters and the joltless expulsion of their residents), today it is important to formulate a balanced answer to the question "qualitative minimum versus quantitative challenge".

Strategies of improvement

Ideally, the program is based on the intention of orienting itself to orienting the real purchasing power of the target group and to improve the living and infrastructure standards without high technological effort. To achieve such objectives were mainly from the World Bank and Development Histles Sites-and-Services– or upgrading-Projects initiated. The former pursue the goal of taking a while, which is in public greater than the creation of a minimum (technical) basic supply (Services) and divide into buildings (sites). Depending on the type of residential construction project, fundaments, wet cells (sanitar plants, cake) or so-called core houses (core houses; consisting of Z.B. Wet cell and a living room) are created by the carrier of the construction project, while the tenant or buyer remains to tackle their extension over time and depending on the financial possibility.

With the second strategy, a subsequent equipment is meant a form of improvement that is a necessary minimum of infrastructure, D.H. Making water, light and dewatering systems. In slum areas (which differ in the nature of the genesis, but hardly with regard to housing qualitat of squatter areas), this is usually available, but no longer functional. However, this "appreciation" usually requires a reduction of the population density and a spatial reorganization (rebeling).

For both strategies, it is about acting the self-help of residents as unpaid worker for housing construction ("muscle mortgage") and to mobilize privately available resources. However, previous experiences reveal that the target groups themselves are often not achieved with such programs or. The cost of you are far too high. Which is certainly due to it that the standards of experts and planners come from bringing the specific ideas of "human river" living.

Between Gated Communities and No-Go-Areas

Measured by that was the 20. Century in Europe a success story of "housing construction as a social task". At least she is likely to be advertised. However, what is concerned about the housing requirement, today we are again in a situation that equals the eighty years ago. Again – behavior and uncertain – searched for solutions that cover many thanks to do. Inless housing construction "in the width" because of that, despite the enormous change that our society passes through, the opportunity to try out new ways to try out new ways. However, they had to be tested for an apartment program that finds his maillance in the needs of man; A room reservoir, which, in the interest of the user, freezing for change, which loses to your own fallen, free decisions and conscious self-determination. And the total financeable, at the same time for the individual is affordable.

Since it is more likely to be about the everyday, less about that, architects seem hard to do. When you get in intellectually and emotional – deeper to the topic, then often by means of the magic words flexilitat and variability. But the approach lives to allow many options, a mental fault in: because in the result is usually not a room improvement, but the better prere on short or medium-term changes in the needs of the needs. To this day, architects still use the concept of flexibility still predominantly purely constructive (to replace mandrel by a few nozzles). This flexibility ultimately benefits the architect itself because it simplifies the design; The flexibility of the room organization promised to the user will never be invited as well as never.

The mass dimension of living also acts deep into the sustainability discussion. The paradigm shift in our society – away from one-sided economic growth, towards more life qualitat – plays a role to be considered. Depends, for example, in this "more life qualitat" that families and households require more and more living space today; Statistically, today in Germany per capita is already 42 square meters. But it is at the same time a sign of claim to more life qualitat. This is how this question is very fast on political and cultural fundamental values of our company: the private property and the seclusion and independence of a private sphare.

These values are closely linked with the hope of individual autonomy. Virginia Woolf has not randomly given to her book on the question of women: "a room for himself". On the other hand, that the individualization and pluralization of residential surfaces seemingly less well realized in the compacted inner-stadtical context and in massaged construction, the development of the last decades suggests, in which a population shift towards the city counters and the urban surroundings. Thus, the example of the living proves that ocological maxims are quite in conflict with the emancipatory helds of the culture. And this conflict still has existing.

Not only: a bipolar development – on the one hand Gated communities as stealed residential quarters for the rich, on the other hand "no-go-items" and residential silos as a reserve for the short-minded – is evident that the housing question is socially directed. Right actually she is committed to our human existence par excellence.

We could not live if we did not live. We were unconscious and prosperous. Our apartment is what the world attached. The traffic between the apartment and the world is life.

Vilem Flusser

Philosophically printed out means living as much as: to preserve the certainty of protection of protection real and symbolically. Recalling this under the present conditions again is a – priority – merit of this year-old Bauhaus Award.

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