Why are women underprosted in the mathematical research fields? It is not for gender discrimination against application and demand
Women and science – that is no contradiction today. Since the 1960s and 1970s, female sex has made enormous progress. However, this does not apply to all areas of science equally – and above all not to every career step. In the US, for example, 57 percent of all doctors in the social sciences are female, 71 percent of all psychologists and even 77 percent of all veterinars. In those experts, however, in which mathematics plays an important role, the relevant ones look different: only 15 percent of all upscale career positions are occupied by the top 100 universities of the US in such experts from women, and the proportion of professors is under ten percent.
Why is it? The US researchers Stephen Ceci and Wendy Williams from Cornell University try to come to an answer with a meta-analysis of appropriate studies of the past twenty years. Your conclusions describe them in the publications of the US Academy of Sciences (PNAs). First, they discuss the open discrimination that is often used as the first possible cause in the discussion.
In fact, there are some empirical studies that could take effect the obviously lacking career success of women. Researchers, such an investigation,, for example, less laboratory space available. In order to be considered as productive compared to manners, they have to deal with three Paper more in the coarse magazines or twenty more in the lesser acquaintances.
It’s about accessing resources
When the Magazine Behavioral Ecology said the review process so that the name of the submitter was no longer known to the reviewer, the acceptance rate for researchers increased by almost eight percent in the first four years. However, critics noticed that magazines without anonymous review process also recorded an increase in acceptance rates of female submissors during this time. Other studies also show that no significant differences in the amption of women or from manners can be demonstrated – such a statistic of Nature Neuroscience.
Likewise, researchers differ in their productivity: here much more rather plays a role of which the one is working on – and whether he has many teaching obligations. At this point, the researchers in their opinion come to true causes a stucco close: It’s about accessing resources. Women rather work on teaching intensive universities, and they are often employed in lower positions that leave less freedom for research.
Manner in similar positions have the same problems – but the current personnel structure has the consequence that manners are just overter in high positions. This could be an important argument for the introduction of a quota at all levels.
Exists discrimination in the awarding of claims?
The authors of the PNAs papers show that this is not detectable. Neither a German analysis of post-doc applications found gender differences still a rough US study, which examined the fund of three US institutions nor an Australian analysis that is good 10.000 assessments examined for significant differences.
An investigation of the American National Institute of Health found that although manner were favored in some factors, but women in others. However, significant differences arose, they asked the affected directly. Although 77 percent of the feminine and 81 percent of the man’s students believed that a full-time job is important for the career, was a good 30 percent of women surveyed (but only nine percent of the men) also important to reduce working hours be able to. Similar statements also showed studies in other countries.
Problem of your own choice
This is the researchers, so about a problem of their own choice. Which is not completely voluntary, but also the expectations of the gender roles follows. If you want to change this ratio, the researchers do you want to put a lot more early than in the universities: Madchen often decide very early, what kind of career they strive for.
In any case, it is not: Schulerinnen are twice as often in the top percent of the Mathebesten to find as Schuler. First, it’s about values, later resources: the connection determining the career success between part-time job in science and a typically then very instructive activity is to be dissolved.