Mandle of a woman from the spades Iron Age, on whose teething grossest can be found. Image: Alan Cooper
After gene analyzes, bacterial communities have changed with the development of agriculture, since the industrial revolution, the caries caused causing bacteria to succeed
Cultural progress costs its price. Through new ways of life and techniques, not only society, behavior and the environment, but sometimes also the human body are changed. It adapts to the new conditions or opened as a host new possibilities of colonization. The number of roommates of the human body is well known far high than the number of human cells, bacterial communities differ depending on the individual and also after lifestyle. But the evolution of the roommates is still little known. A possible context of the evolutionary changes in bacterial communities in the badine believe now to have found Australian and British scientists as they report in the magazine Nature Genetics.
A scientific team under the direction of Alan Cooper from the University of Adelaide has sequenced DNA from bacteria, which on the calcified tartar of teething of 34 skeleton finds in Europe of Jagern and collectors of midstone before starting agriculture on the first cultures that farmed agriculture, and the bronze time has been preserved to the Middle Ages. Tartar forms when the plaque (plaque) consisting of a dense bacterial biofilm mineralized by storage of calcium phosphate mineralized. The bacteria are included in the tartar and can be preserved over thousands of years. Therefore, tartar is an important source for the investigation of the evolutionary development of the bacterial roommates of man.
Is known that the beginning of the consumption of cereals (wheat and barley) in the Neolithic period before 10.000 years with an increase in the tartar and caries as well as periodontitis, both of which are created by bacteria,. Caries has now become endemic, 60-90 percent of children in industrialists have caries, periodontitis have 5-20 percent of adult people.
According to the invention of agriculture and the sewingness before 10.000 years ago, after genetic analysis of the scientists, the composition of the bacteria in the badine has changed significantly towards that of the Jager and collectors-Volker. Through more strong, so carbohydrates, in the food, seems to have changed the composition of the bacteria in the mouth. During jagians and collectors, predominantly non-pathogenic Clostridia and Ruminococaceae bacteria lived in the mouth, then the caries, especially Streptococcus mutans, and paronyonditis-causing bacteria (porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella and Treponema bacteria) moved.
The new mixture of pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacterial stems has been quite constant up to the Middle Ages. Then, then, the scientists suspect a connection with the industrial revolution, the caries causing bacteria dominant, spread like weed and displaced other bacteria, so that the modern oral microbiotic okosystems in the mouth show significantly less diversitat as in the pre-industrial times. Especially. Mutan comes much more often than earlier. The renewed food revolution in which with the processing of cereals and especially refined sugars from sugar bubbes and tube causes mono- and disaccharides fermented by the bacteria. S. Mutans thrives in a sugar environment.
The scientists emphasize that the decrease in bacterial diversity indicates, "that in a few centuries of the human mouth has become an okosystem, which has substantially less biodiversity". Since a coarse diversitat in nature is generally associated with a higher stability, the modern oral mouth is less resistant in the form of unbalanced diet less resistive and more likely to become the invasion of pathogenic bacteria.
Dramatically, Cooper says: "Modern mouth exists primarily in a permanent state of the disease." And even more drastic: "The modern mouth is similar to a landscape of a herbicide, which penetrates into the invasive weeds in the free niches." If the relationship is to correct that cultural progress through the agricultural and later, the industrial revolution is first changing biodiversity and then minimized, then the mouth was a mirror world of what happens through the spread of humanity on the planet..