Nothing without emotions, but with emotions we do not have everything

Nothing without emotions, but with emotions we do not have everything

How advertising really works – Part 9

Part 8: From behind through the knee in the middle of the subconscious

All practitioners and theorists are convinced, emotional advertising is the wisdom of the very last conclusion. If you want to work, advertising must appeal emotions. That lights up to the first and maybe even at second glance.

Also washing machines, computer and complicated technical device are advertised today emotionally. In sustained market, emotional experience values for a strategy of withdrawal from the competition. Customers hardly take quality differences. Often the product-related interest is low.

But the emotional sustainment often misses its effect in the crowd. The pauseless emotionalization dulls, especially if you have no longer experiencing anything about the concrete properties of a product as a consumer?. You can not watch people after jubiling 24 hours a day, and you can do not even do it right.

Nothing without emotions, but with emotions we do not have everything

Rough feeling coin offered this commercial: Blob Wofur has recourse? For music? For a new CD? For a purple top shirt? Or even that rough blots on shirts are not so bad? Image: Screenshot Telekom commercial

When the conviction prevailed, advertising should be above all the "Emotional" emphasize, the long decade broke the maternal to the caribbean beach Bacardi people.

This was due to a pronounced bloden and rather embarrassing thinking: the advertising surprises believed all seriousness, "gross emotionalitat" there is the fact that louder Alberne peppers are half-naked and shattered on a dream beach – as well as lieschen Muller probably fantased the perfect holiday gluck.

However, psychology had found something else: emotion is always important to get the brain start. But this is unflighborhood on vacation, but for example the simple joy of loose a mathematical task. Thanks to a trickless expectation without inner participation, no Kuhler head is on the solution. He or she has to inspire himself for it. Emotional is the enthusiasm for the solution, but not the suff on the beach full of half-naked.

The advertising forguzzis still did not get that, but she probably noticed that in the end there were so many commercials with cheerful Hemnaked half-naked, that one could not distinguish more, for which product they are currently watching. In the whole German, there is still drunken Caribbean.

Actually, that had to work smoothly: If you want to warn people in front of the dangers of smoking, they show you the coarse recording of an open smoking leg with the debris. Colorfast, detailed and disgusting. Then your hair stands to mountains, and you never drive a cigarette.

Such mischiefs like politicians like to think of all over the world. Recently, such dramatic horror images have been mapped on all cigarette boxes in Australia. But politicians are not one of the brightest kops.

But thought contents with uncomfortable feeling tone are made mabig, with neutral feeling bad and well kept well with pleasant feeling tone. But: the strong the emotionalization, the weak the advertising effect. Pronounced fear rugs drove to defense reactions and are hardly behavioral. This also shows the empirical finding that in no smoking campaigns moral, rational and anti-stalks do not act at all.

Smoking makes blind: The health work warns

But because of this oh so deterrent horror vision hardly an Australian smoker has left smoking, who did not want to be anyway. And that has a simple reason: the people can be influenced by fear or fear exciting appeals as well as never. And if, then mostly not in the desired direction. There are massive reactions: now just right.

Most smokers know the health risks of smoking. You do not have to tell you that. It does not help if you put you once again the cane legs in front of the latz.

That’s just the problem of smokers. They live in an ambivalent situation. You know and usually pretty much, how harmful smoking is and smoke anyway. Whoever explains you again with the wooden hammer, what you already know anyway is landal – but do not convince.

Nothing without emotions, but with emotions we do not have everything

Smoking causes irreversible damage in the eye background. One calls the macular degeneration. Sightseeing is lost, complete blindness can be the result. Image: Australian Health Authority

Psychology distinguishes something more accurate between fear and fear. She is afraid as a free-floating sensation of the threat in contrast to fear, which represents an emotional response to a specific, consciously perceived danger.

Fear is some "normal"; Because your closed is a concrete danger. Fear is the field on which the psychologists earn their livelihood. Fear is the rational reaction to everyday hazards. Fear is the queasy feeling, which adhere to one when suddenly a wild Lowe is standing in front of one. Fear is the feeling of life threat, which ceased an anxious man at the sight of a harmless insect.

Fear of trouble is a bad guide and brings nothing

Anti-smoking advertising wants to be scared. You’re scared: all public propaganda campaigns do not really want to warn against concrete dangers, but diffuse insist. And therefore they are damned to failure. A similar campaign that wladimir Putin prevailed highly sternly in Russia was set little later.

The advertising psychology is afraid and fear largely synonymous, in the sense of fear. Fear or fear inducing advertising is commonly used in non-commercial advertising, such as in the health lapse, for safety measures against burglary or when creating seat belts.

So you describe the people a concrete danger and says: "If you do this or that or buy this or that product, then you do not even get into this danger."

Social Psychology and Communication Research have in detail with the effect of such Scent in propaganda, public relations and advertising. Advertising with fear rugs always consists of two parts: The first part describes a fear generating situation like a catastrophe, an abdominal, a disease – in short of the actual "Fragrant" – and the second part of the behavior or the product, with the help of which one can span the risk of space – that "Fear reducing behavior".

The findings of social psychology and communication research are not clear. In any case, the use of negative emotions for activating consumers is a double-edged sword. Although it is possible to easily achieve an activation of consumers with the help of scourers without any doubt.

So you will be attentive and maybe even worried something. However, there may be unintended side effects. When advertising with anxietylos, people can handle their fear by displacement, instead of following the recommendation.

Since the early investigations of the effect of scattering rides of different intensities, there were often, but not through a surprising result: neither the dramatic nor the average anti-stapling leaded to settings change, but the weak appeal.

Again, one of the iron constituents of the advertising design is: one just can not apply too thick. Whoever places too thick, it often gets Knuppel thick.

The Saarbrucker advertising researcher Werner Kroeber-Riel (1934-1995) described the emotional activation so: "Couple are the Trojan horse of advertising". Namely, it has been shown that advertising with negative emotions on a long point of view is less effective than the advertising draw of pleasant feeling.

Pronounced scent pigs drove to one Defensive perception lock with consumers and therefore hardly behavioral. In all non-smoking campaigns has been shown again and again that moral, rational and anxiety can not be very effective.

However, this finding is not clear. An investigation of American advertising researchers Michael L. Ray and William L. Wilkie to an anti-smoker campaign operating with strong Angsteppels found out in 1970 that there is a clear relationship between the later observable racy of the cigarette consumption and the grappapy operating campaign.

In this campaign, however, a well-known actor occurred: the Marlboro man. He publicly announced that he die of lung cancer due to years of cigarette smoking.

Nothing without emotions, but with emotions we do not have everything

The Marlboro Man Wayne McLaren: Before – Afterwards. Even this scares no one. All goods were tanned, but not so rushed that they had been listening to smoking. Pictures: Marlboro / Screenshot OCN

From this study, the authors concluded that anxiety struggle promise in terms of target persons who "Low in Anxiety and High in Self-Esteem" are, so in people who have little scared and have a high self-esteem. So the chose works differently than you were expected: not the anxiously will be anxious if you are afraid of you by advertising. The brave and self-confident can be impressed by the manufacture of threatening dangers.

The question of what the conditions are for such things to turn to a message to avert danger is the subject of Ronald W. Rogers 1975 developed "Protection motivation model", that over the decades of newer authors "Ordered Protection Motivation Model (OPM Model)" and "Extended Protection Motivation Model (EPM Model)" was further developed.

Three critical variables determine the effect of fearpacks: (1) the ejectable harmful damages: (2) the probability of the receptionist probably affected, if he does nothing, and (3) the suspected effectiveness of potential counterparts.

Central is the concept of protective motivation ("Protection motivation"), ie health-specific intentions, intentions and intentions. So a smoker who intends to set smoking, at least one "step" Close to the healthy behavioral alternative than the one who only thinks about it.

A person who has been brought by negative appeal from his emotional equilibrium is looking for a possibility to recover the balance and the "threat" to avert. If a suitable way out is offered with the fearing message (non-smoking, vaccination, conclusion of an insurance), he often accepts him and notices him well. If the anxiety achieves a subjectively no longer profitable high, it comes to defense mechanisms: the message is – unconscious – denied or the advertiser is rejected as inconsidered.

Which effect of an antagonist in a particular target person causes, among other things, their own personality and anxiety level, the importance of the topic for them, the strong of anxiety in the embassy, the perceived probability that the unpleasant consequences will occur, the period, which will pass up to the possible occurrence of the consequences, and the belief of the transmitter.

The numerous efforts for AIDS precautions have demanded new research that is critical to the use of fearpacks. Decisive afterwards are the risk perception ("Risk period") of the target persons and their presentation of eligibility ("Self-Efficacy"To). If the target persons are not convinced that they can prevent infection by condoms, they also do not use them.

Behavior-strongering usually the performance of rewards or the avoidance of punishment – but not the threat of penalties or terrible consequences. The advertisement only affects if they are subject to positive consequences. Improving rewards such as financial benefits, personal well-being and social recognition are available.

For advertising with negative appeals, various reactions are conceivable: is the effect of the advertising material being seriously represented by negative experiences – such a fear or disgust – so the product can appear ascending even when it uses rescue before the unpleasant. However, one can also rely on as good as nothing, what the research has asked. Most finished ones are usually also counter-findings.

So keep the two US researchers Anthony Pratkanis and Elliott Aronson in 1991 in their book "Age of Propaganda. The Everyday Use and Abuse of Persuasion" (The age of propaganda. The everyday use and misuse of influence) expressively realized that you can not apply greatly enough, if you want to mobilize hurt: "All Other Things Being Equal, The More Frightened A person is, The More Likely He or She is to Take Positive Preventive Action." (The more fear someone has, the more likely it is that he or she undertakes something.To)

A successful example of the successful advertising with negative appeals is the mid-1980s from the German Federal Ministry of Youth, Family, Women and Health Campaign for AIDS prevention. The ejectable harmful damages is about question. The campaign emphasized the personal concern of the individual ("Why do you think the only one who can not get the AIDS?") And pointed out that everyone has the possibility to protect themselves. In total, the campaign operated more carefully with fear.

All investigations from the US and Europe clearly point out that it is always and among all circumstances, more effective to address target persons with positive appeals. The 1997 confirmed a study by the University of Dayton about calls for organ donation. In the past, with little success, especially appeals had been used, which emphasized the misery of people waiting for donor organs.

The study used four different appeals – two with "Fear appeals" and two with "Positive appeals", which emphasized the blessing for the receptioners. Result: 25 percent of those who had been addressed by terrace said they had no intention to donate their organs. In those who are "positive appeal" had been addressed, the only funf percent said.

Pretty clear is also the relationship with the age of the target persons. This has shown itself in the numerous campaigns against drug abuse all over the world. Fear rug seem even better, the age the target persons are. The young the target persons, the stronger widespread is the idea of their own immortality. A true curse; Because all anti-drug campaigns are aimed primarily at young people. And I do not attract that.

Regardless of the question of their effectiveness, however, the advertising industry makes use relatively rarely use of unpaid anti-stacks. That’s good reason. Economic advertising with the fear affects the psyche of the addressee: it points to an alleged or actual danger. Legally, the undamaged economic advertising with the fear is anticipated. They violated the principle of fair competition; because she does not advertise with its own performance, but arouses or stark in fleth to influence the purchase decision.

The more or less mild form of hatching of anxiety is in the day’s day advertising, however, and gift: "If you do not use the mouthwash ‘anti-lazy stink’, then your bad breath gets all friends and comes sexually on the dog." That too is a competitive fear rug.

Under creative in the advertising industry, emotion is always welcome as opposed to rationality and interpreted. They then ame that they had to how in their commercials emotionally mercilessly on the timpani to find attention to the audience, and thus demonstrate it easily recognizable for everyone that they did not understand the role of emotions; because emotion is a bit more subtle than anything that irritates the transuluses.

Emotional inner participation is a prerequisite for someone’s interest to an arbitrary object. It is the pleasant sensation that takes the viewer if he sees something pleasing.

Emotion and cognition are so much interlinked that they can not be separated from each other. The inner excitation, which occurs in emotional experiences, is activated and stimulates the total performance. Consumers, which are specifically activated by emotional stimuli, take information better, process faster and save better.

Even relatively weak emotions are sufficient to yield cognitive processes and also behavior. Activation with the help of emotions, also has a value and for itself, since each person needs a certain MAB to inner excitation.

Of the "belly" The advertiser lives in the brain

The advertising industry is still fixed on the simple but wrong model of the two-part. People become as too "rational" or to "emotionally" designated. When it comes to the question "brain" (cold, rational) or "belly" (warm, emotional) goes, suggests that "heart" the advertiser for the stomach.

But this stomach lives as well as the heart in the brain. The idea that we are in possession of a rational and an emotional brainshoors has been rejected. Both brain halves have emotional and Rational structures.

An example is the Amygdala (the almond core), one of the most important emotion centers in our brain. She sits in both brain holes and also right next to a rationally cognitive headquarters, the hippocampus.

Also, the advanced and popular acceptance in the advertising industry, it has the alternative between linguistic rational and image-emotional access to the human brain has been refuted. Brain research has shown that all information entering our brain will be evaluated emotionally without exception and there is no purely rational excursions.

Today it has the most of M. B. Arnold as well as by Stanley Schachter and Jerome E. Singer formulated Cognitive emotion theory Acceptance found. After that, emotion is a static and a dynamic component. The cognitive aspects of a situation that is evaluated statically positively or negatively determine the emotional character of a consideration tendency towards a positively evaluated or as an avoidance of a negatively assessed activation state.

Emotion can be understood as the result of a process in which both physiological excitement such as cognitions are present in varying degrees and influencing each other (two-component theory).

Shaughter ames that every emotion was first physiologically conditioned and primarily in an unspecific activation. Only a mental classification of this excitement, for example as an inventory or joy, allows the corresponding gauge experience.

The marketing teaching has neglected the importance of the emotions long. The interest of market, consumption and advertising research focuses on product differentiation and advertising with the help of emotion, ie the influence of ares by means of emotional stimuli.

Can consumers seriously condition like Pawlow’s dogs?

One of the best wishrooms of all advertisers is the hope that you can connect people with the help of advertising like Pawlow’s dogs condition: Ringing the bell, catching the consumers – in an invincer greed – to drool, drool, lawn under an inner compulsion to the nearest business and buy the object of their desire: a chocolate bar, a rubber top or a closet burst.

Many advertisers actually believe that something was possible. Or they hope for at least. Maybe not with rubber tops, but certainly in chocolate bars and other products of the food industry. But they are wrong, as so often. Even the conditioning of dogs has never believed that we all believe in knowledge.

After the theory of classical conditioning of the Soviet physiologist Ivan P. Pavlow leads the repeated performance of a Neutral charm Together with a stimulus, which already causes a reaction, for the originally neutral stimulus causing the same reaction. The individual is conditioned by reacting to the neutral charm.

The classical conditioning discovered by PAWLOW is a selection of charms whose signal consent is learned. This is how the behavior is conditioned and leads to reactions that can be made originally only by natural stimuli. Prerequisite for classical conditioning are three factors:

  1. It has to be natural charm Existing, which excludes a reaction (a reflex).
  2. It has to be neutral exist, the same reaction usually does not exclude.
  3. The natural and neutral stimulus are presented in succession in time – whereby the natural at the time precedes the neutral at time – until the neutral charm decreases the same reaction as the natural charm.

The original stem is called unconditioned stimulus, The response by him Unconditioned reaction. The origionary neutral charm will Conditioned stimulus named, the response by him Conditioned reaction (Conditional Reflex). The conditioned reaction will be slowed back in time or completely deleted if no scanning occurs. The reaction trained by a particular stimon can also be effected later by similar stimuli (irritant generation).

The principle of classical conditioning can be found in emotional conditioning: When images or words cause emotional reactions and repeatedly presented along with a neutral word, after some time this word appears the same emotional reaction.

This learning principle is meaningful for advertising. It is amed that emotions behave from the standpoint of learning like reflexes. It follows: If you get to know a hitherto neutral object in a positive mood, a positive affective setting is caused or conditioned to this object.

In advertising messages are therefore stimuli incorporating a positive reaction potential. The emotions based on it are conditioned with the product.

In saturated markets, the products are mostly very similar or even almost identical. They are interchangeable. Consequently, the advertisement will be interchangeable if it is oriented exclusively or essentially on objective product features. Therefore, advertising tries to orient products to emotional consumer experiences.

Emotional adventure values are subjectively perceived, compulsive product reviews of consumers and serve to differentiate products. In saturated markets with technically exchangeable products, this is usually the only possible possibility to sign up from the competitor.

If, however, you throw a more accurate view of the famous dog experiment of Iwan Pawlow, then no conditioning has occurred at all at all; because the dogs did not act reflexively. A reflex runs automatically, always.

The famous dog of Pavlow, who has allegedly learned through the conditional reflex, was – like all dogs – actively interested in his eating. Otherwise he had not learned anything. So the dog has set up the theory: when the bell is, the eating comes. This is not a conditional reflex, but a theory.

Nothing without emotions, but with emotions we do not have everything

Neither Pawlows dogs nor consumers can be conditioned. Image: rklawton / CC-by-SA-3.0

Advertising tries to condition the consumers by presentation of products in combination with stimuli emotionally. It is hoped that the positive emotional response to the appeal undertakes the product. In these cases, however, it is not about automatically running reflexes, but affective-emotionally evaluated settings. However, these are much more complex than reflexes. Settings are Perceptual judgments and have a recognizing (cognitive) component. An affective emotional rating is only a Aspect of settings.

The repeated performance of a product, a brand along with emotional charms leads to these products or brands receive an emotional experience value. If this experience value is designed in a residence, so a defensive nature of market communication is carried out.

Probably the most prominent example supplies the market for cigarettes. The products are lens in just rare traps distinguishable – for that they supply blind tests in bulk evidence. First emotional experient values (cowboys, jungle adventurers, comic figures) allow a defensive product brand profiling.

Elements that arouse strong emotions must be a relation to the embassy to have the product itself. Otherwise they attract all attention and steer from the actual statement. Advertising message and emotional speech must form a unit. In addition, the emotional approach must correspond to the communication target. It is not said that they run the same for all persons.

If Pawlow dogs do not love to be conditioned in truth, how should that work with consumers who are oler than one thinks about a somewhat more complex brain than dogs? In the dogs in Pavlov’s experiment no reflex was drawn because the dogs – long before the experiment – had an active interest in food.

A reflex requires an automatism. However, the reaction to the loud of the bell could lead to a linking of lute with the Expectation lining. It was not conditioning. A consumer that promotes the advertisement the considerable adventure worlds will not be conditioned. Maybe he crashed the experience expectation with the advertised product, but maybe not. And that is not conditioning. The talk of the conditioning of consumers is nothing but a gross nonsense.

Wolfgang J. Koschnick Applies in Germany, Austria and Switzerland as one of the best-formed critics of international advertising research and advertising. He wrote about 50 recognized reference works from the wide field of marketing, management, market communication, advertising and media planning, market, media and social research, with which several generations of young recyclers, marketing experts, advertising and media researchers are trained. He always kept his independence and a certain quarrel. If necessary, he deposits with advertising drivers, advertisers, advertising agencies and other stakeholders without reputation of persons, organizations and institutions.

The 10. Part of the series "How advertising really works" Appears in about a week:

Which fades the people, also works or about?

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