Anyone who has wondered on Saturday afternoon about a 24-hour failure of the GPS in the Navi or Smartphone: This is responsible for a comparatively strong sun bufftion on the northwestern edge of the sun, in the newly created region 2838. The outbreak, a so-called flare with the strong x 1.5 started at 16:18 clock, reached its high point at 16:29 and ended at 16:34 lousy summer time. The outbreak had already been preceded by a smaller M 2.7 flare at 9:17 am.
Short-term disturbances caused by events on the sun will be named after a five-storey system
The radiation outstanding from the so-called flare caused a radio-blackout on earth. Because both the reception of GPS-advised and that was partly influenced by radio stations, NASA experts classified as a radio event R3 – there are five classes that range from the multi-hours failure of radio and navigation services.
Strong outbreak, but nothing special
At 3. July 2021 there was an X-Class flare on the sun’s surface and thus big outbreak since 2017
On the scale of evaluations, the flare ranked in the highest category X, which in turn is divided into every doubling of the intensity after values from 1 to 10. Then the outbreak reached the strong X 1.5.
While this is the first comparatively strong outbreak in the new sunflake cycle 25, but X-Class Flares are not as rare and happen on average once a month, but most recently in September 2017. In the approximately elevenhee-half-year cycle of the sunspoting activity, we are now again in a phase of sunflow gain and thus more flares and coronal mass surfers are connected on the sun’s surface.
FLARES take only a few minutes, but the energy quantities that are conventionally emitted from the sun are far exceeded in the form of rontgen and hard UV radiation. With a flare lost the sun magnetic field structures in active regions, so happen in said Region 2838. The day before the same point came to a smaller flare of class M 2.7. Flares emit directly electromagnetic radiation, which spreads in space with light speed. It reaches the upper layers of the ionosphere of the earth after about 8.3 minutes. The radiation increases the ionization and temperature in the upper atmosphere, which leads to their extension. Low flying satellites are thus heavily braked by air molecules.
With a flare can also be a veritable mass ejection (Coronal Mass Ejection) of plasma – even if both forms exist independently. Even the X-flare of Saturday followed a plasma cloud with a speed of 375 km / s. The plasma cloud ("Sunwind") So travels much slower and reaches the magnetosphere of the earth only after hours or days. Unlike flares, the particles primarily influence the magnetic field and cause, for example, geomagnetic storm. CMES also influence radio wave propagation especially on the shortwave. Visibly the incident particles affect, for example, by northern lights in the sky of Polar regions.
On earth, the flare-emitted hard radiation for humans is no problem, because it does not penetrate to the ground. It looks different for astronauts and pilots. The effects of CMES on the earth can appear very massive for many people, but because of the long pre-warning time you can prepare better.