The United Nations General Assembly operates with its Millennium destinations
In September 2000, Member States of the United Nations agreed on eight so-called Millennium Development Goals. The project, which includes 18 underground targets and 48 indicators, should reduce hunger and poverty worldwide by 2015 and significantly improve the prerequisites for general primary school formation. In addition, progress in equality, lowering the mortality rate of children and nuts, have an effective evaluation of serious diseases such as HIV / AIDS or malaria and the backup of ecological sustainability and the construction of global development partnerships at the top of the agenda.
FINE YEARS FOR THIS AMINESS ABOUT GENERAL HEALTH, THE GENERAL GENERATION OF THE GENERAL MOUCHING OF THE UNITS OF 14. to 16. September in New York, here u.a. to discuss progress and evidence. However, the highest level of ideas will offer little opportunity to pass on positive balance sheets, and this amption is by no means on protest notes of non-governmental organizations or globalization greaters.
The Children’s Hour "Terre des Hommes" has collected a comprehensive dossier that documents the Millennium Development Goals and its implementation based on a large number of official calculations and statistics. The Millennium Indicator Database of the United Nations, OECD information on the development assistance of individual states in 2004 and evaluations of the Federal Statistical Office, but also calculations of the World Health Organization, the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development or the BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2005 the German BP.
In 2000, the United Nations acquainted itself to a vision whose optimistic, yes euphoric base tone is still in the quite critical interim report, Jeffrey Sachs, the head of the Earth Institute at the New York Columbia University, on behalf of UN General Secretar Kofi Annan introduced in January.
How will the world look like in 2015 if it succeeds in realizing the goals? More than 500 million people will be freed from extreme poverty. More than 300 million will no longer be hungry. Also in the health of children there will be spectacular progress. 30 million children who had died before reaching the five years of life will survive. Even more than two million nuts will be saved life. But that’s not all. When the goals are achieved, the number of people who do not have flawless drinking water will reduce 350 million, and the number of those who live without basic sanitary facilities by 650 million; They all will be a healthy life in GRUTERER could lead. Hundreds of millions of more women and girls will receive education, access to economic and political opportunities and have added more security.
Fif-year later, the visionars must deal with the refracting reality at that time. The Sachs-Report already indicated, but what was still apparent there as a difficult but to be watered, turns out more and more than wishful thinking with continued consideration. The results, which are to beech after a third of the estimated period, give a little reason for the hope that the Millennium Development Goals or only the most convenient part can actually be achieved.
Objective 1: Eliminate extreme poverty and hunger
The number of people suffering from extreme poverty – D.H. Must less than a US dollar per day – should be halved by 2015. For this purpose, their share had to be reduced from 27.9 percent to 14 percent in countries with low and medium-sized income.
Between 1990 and 2001, a reduction has already been reached to 21.3 percent. The Federal Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Development is therefore optimistic that this Millennium target is actually achieved. Responsible goods, especially the poverty vaccination in India or China, while the situation in countries had deteriorated the Sahara.
In order to halve the number of starving people, the proportion of halved people at the total population of 20 percent (1990-1992) had to decline to 10 percent and the proportion of halved children, which are under five years old, from 33 percent to 16, 5 percent. By 2002, one sank to 17 percent, the other until 2003 to 28 percent. Therefore, progress is recognizable, but the goal is not in sight.
Objective 2: Primary education training for all children
The enrollment rate rose to 84.2 percent until 2002. In the 1991, this meant a narrow plus of only 2.6 percent. Since it is to be raised to 100 percent, the achievement of this goal is unlikely to be unlikely.
The situation in the African countries of the Sahara, in Sudasia and share Oceania, especially difficult is particularly difficult. In some states, the literacy rate of boys and girls has particularly high differences to the unfavorable female sex, so z.B. in Mozambique (77.3 / 50.7) or in Yemen 85.0 / 53.2).
Objective 3: Equality and coarse influence of women demand
Women own only 1 percent of global worship, but do 70 percent of unpaid work. Not only does the Federal Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Development are advertising for more equality. The Millennium targets should also be given to this topic primarily and therefore prioritize the ratio of the enrollment rate of Madchen and boys worldwide from 0.89 (1990/91) to 1 and the ratio of young women and men, aged 15 to 24 Years reading and writing can be increased from 0.91 to 1. At the same time, the proportion of women who participate in a Parliament of political will-formation should be increased from 12.4 percent in 1990 to 50 percent.
Entrance and literacy rate could be increased slightly and are now at 0.93 and 0.92 percent. At the parliamentary mandates, little movement was recorded. In 2005, the number lends to 15.9 percent, it is still 34.1 percent away from the desired optimum.
Objective 4: Reduce child mortality
In order to reduce the mortality of children under five years by 2015 by two-thirds, the number of children who die per 1000 live births has been reduced from 95 (1990) to 31 from 95 (1990) to 31. By 2003, however, only a reduction to 80, and in 16 countries, child mortality was even risen.
The World Health Organization premomsed in a recent report that not a single one of the world’s poor countries has a realistic opportunity to achieve the target targeted for 2015. If the current developments continue, child mortality could be reduced by a quarter and not two-thirds.
Objective 5: Improve mother’s health
Year for year 500 die.000 women on complications during pregnancy or at birth of children. To 100.000 live births come 400 death trap, with mother mortality in industrialized countries at 14 and in the developing courses at 450. The total number should be reduced worldwide by three quarters, but the World Health Organization stops this goal in the same report for unreachable.
According to current extrapolations – secured basic data were finally determined in 2000 – mother mortality in the countries in which she was low anyway was further sinking. In the other estimates, the World Health Organization expects a stagnation or further increase. The WHO ames that at least $ 30 to $ 40 per capita of the population had to be invested in a functioning health system per year. In many developing courses, however, have a maximum of ten and sometimes only two US dollars.
Objective 6: HIV / AIDS, malaria and other diseases
In 1990, 0.37 percent of adults between 15 and 49 were infected with the HIV virus in the developing courses or already suffered from AIDS. By 2004, their share could not be reduced as planned. On the contrary, he rose to 1.26 percent in these 15 years.
There are no recent data for malaria diseases, attempting to the number of new infections with tuberculosis from 119 per 100.000 people in 1990 to reduce to 0 in 2015, but could also be sentenced to failure. By 2003, the number has risen to 129.
Objective 7: a sustainable environmental environment
The Grune Millennium target provides for the protection of forest areas and many other measures for the conservation of biodiversity. In addition, CO2 emissions and energy consumption should be reduced. The previous result has many opposed aspects. While the share of Walder at the Landflache of 30.3 percent (1990) fell to 29.6 percent (2000), the protective surfaces increased at least 11.2 percent (1994) to 12.9 percent (2004). In addition, the outset of CO2 worldwide rose while the CO2 emissions are backed up per capita. In particular, the increase in world energy consumption, which increased by about 25 percent from 1990 to 2004.
It looks more pleasing about the second subarination. The proportion of people who have access to healthy drinking water should be increased from 77 percent (1990) to 88.5 percent and the proportion of those who can use sanitary facilities from 49 percent (1990) to 74.5 percent. Already in 2002, the quotas were 83 or 58 percent.
Objective 8: create a global partnership in the service of development
What sounds like Blobem’s Lip Program, includes a variety of concrete sub-items that facilitate the access of developing countries to international market, increasing public development aid to 0.7 percent of gross domestic product, reducing the preceding and trade fixing and support in the field of modern communication tools as well as excuse strategies or assistance in the evidence of youth unemployment.
In some areas, progress has been achieved and, for example, to adopt debts. In others, the positive developments were repealed immediately, for example in the reduction of polling and import quotas for developing landscapers, which are subjected to subsidies in the amount of $ 350 billion per year, with the help of which the rich industrialized countries are protected their agriculture. Often there are only rucks to record. The proportion of development aid at gross domestic product fell in the OECD countries of leans 0.33 percent (1990) on an appropriate 0.25 percent (2005), although the 0.7 percent margin has been targeted for 35 years now.
In the search for the causes of this little encouraging development, one is forcibly focused on the same factors, as there are economic, political or geostrategic interests, corruption, war and violence, lack of problem awareness and many other community, which are all real, but give little evidence of a permanent improvement in the situation.
Against this background of the trivial everything and nothing, the "Association Development Policy German non-governmental organizations" (VENRO) has a position paper titled Word – more German commitment for the Millennium Development Goals! designed that thankfully once again next to your own home tour. And lo and behold, even in Germany, the Millennium’s goals is not so handled as it was allowed to expect a federal government that is permanently traded with the adjectives "socially" and "sustainable".
The Federal Government also remains far behind its international obligations and their opportunities. Although it has already adopted its own action program 2015 in April 2001. But neither its development policy nor its economic, financial and commercial policy is so far consistent and coharent on the evidence of poverty and the realization of the MDGs (Millennium Development Goals). This is reflected exemplarily at the high public development aid. Despite the commitment, it is still far below the internationally agreed 0.7 percent goal.
Namely at 0.28 percent. But a sustainable development policy is not just a matter of money. The association in which around 100 non-governmental organizations have been joined together for a detailed 11-point program. The Federal Government should be used for this, "that international agreements, such as.B. The WTO Trips Agreement (Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights), not hindering the access of the poor countries to drugs, "it is intended to support the British proposal of an international financial fasculitation and timely IFF pilot projects, but then substantial reforms of economic and economic and Contribute to the United Nations (ECOSOC) to advance the establishment of an "Economic and Social Security Council". Under these circumstances, the Millennium objectives in the opinion of VENRO were not only contributing to sustainable development, but also correspond to all current threat scenarios and finally put new accents here.
The Federal Government should therefore be used for this that the MDGs (Millennium Development Goals) are extended to concrete crisis pravention targets. In particular, precise targets and timing of restriction of arms trading and reducing national rusts. Because worldwide rusts are climbed to a new record high with more than $ 950 billion (2003), while development aid expenditure with 78.6 billion. US dollars less than a tenth of this sum.
If it was discussed in detail on the World Summit in a comparable manner and discussed in this direction, the participants could melt the well-formed preliminary words of the United Nations General Secretary on the tongue.
The 2005 World Summit is a chance that every generation has only once – here the world can meet and do something against serious global threats that require kuhne global solutions. But he also offers the possibility to bring the United Nations himself back to life. He is, in short, a chance for all humanity.
Since a third of the short-dimensioned time has already elapsed, there is little reason for global self-falliness. If the individual states profess unwundes to their respective experiments and a ruthless error analysis was preferred, the Millennium destinations were certainly helped more. Finally, they should be achieved.