Babylonian calculated planet run geometric

Babylonian calculated planet run geometric

The first seven lines of text A. Photo: Mathieu Ossendrijver

Science historian at the Berlin Humboldt University of Lost Tonetafratsel

The science historian Mathieu Ossendrijver researching at the Berlin Humboldt University has published an essay in Science, in which he shows how Babylonian astronomers between 350 and 50 before Christ calculated the run of the Jupiter with a trapezoidal model.

Four of the fun small clay panels that Ossendrijver used were hubed in the penultimate century and camps in the British Museum. It is accused of a body of about 450 panels from Babylon and Uruk, which originated between 400 and 50 before Christ. At about 340 of these clay panels there are tables with calculations of the movements of planets, where the animal circle invented towards the end of the fold pre-Christian century serves as a coordinate system for positions. The remaining 110 contain calculation instructions.

Since these panels do not contain any geometric calculation models, they have so far believed that the Babylonians calculated the planet runes purely arithmetic and that the geometric method only in the 14. Century in Oxford or discovered in Paris. The goods have been remarkable in that the geometry in the Babylonian mathematics actually played an important role.

Babylonian calculated planet run geometric

Calculation with trapezes. Graphic: Mathieu Ossendrijver

On the fifth blackboard, which does not belong to this collection and calls the Ossendrijver Table A, the science historian fell two years ago by photos that probably recorded the US Altorientalist Abraham Sachs 50 or 60 years ago. Only through them becomes clear that it goes on all Funf panels around the course of the Jupiter. With the calculations you contain, show that the speed of the planet decreases linear within 60 days of its visible. If the time is recorded on an X-axis and the speed on a Y-axis, a trapezoid arises in a coordinate system. If you divide this trapezi in two trapeze, let the time determine in which the Jupiter returns the half of his way.

When the Babylonian writed down, they had a long time, they had long been behind their best times: both the Altbabylonian and the Neubabylonian Empire, which consisted of 626 to 539 before Christ, were long ago. According to the Persians, which (with short interruptions) prevailed until 331 before Christ, Alexander conquered the coarse the two-streamland. The Greek Seleucid followed the Iranian Parthers and Sassanids and 7. Century the Arabs.

Previously, many Greek astronomers have been influenced by Babylonian – including Meton (which likes to recognize the realization that 19 sundees correspond to about 235 moon months), Eudoxos of Knidos (whose constellations of the Babylonian remarkable), Hipparchos and Claudius Ptolemaus, like the mathematician , Astronomy historian and Jesuit Franz Xaver Kugler already around 1900.

In 2. Century before Christ defended the Babylonian astronomer Seleukos of Seleukia, who appears in the writings of Plutarch, Aetios, Strabon and Muhammad Ibn Zakarīyā Ar-Rāzī, the heliocentric worldview of the Greek Aristarchos of Samos. According to Plutarch, he even proved it. This proof of the Babylonian astronomer (as well as his colleagues Kidenas, Naburianos and Sudines should have written to accurately and not in Greek) is not preserved.

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