What we expect from 2021

What we expect from 2021

The coarse technological trends continue

2020 was also a recent year for the sciences. Like most people, the Covid virus also held the researchers in breath worldwide. An unprecedented amount of scientific resource has been directed to the research of SARS-COV-2 to better understand the virus, its dissemination, its damage in the human body, and not least the possibilities of his certification.

87.000 entry keyword "Covid-19" can be found in the databases of medical publications of the year 2020. And all this work melted into a no less expensive success: the development of a vaccine against the Corona virus is nothing less than one of the large triumphs of the sciences of recent years.

And in one year, according to articulated scientific skepticism, to -feiticheit in Illiberal and Right Populist Circles, from the Trump Administration, on the German AFD, to coarse parts of the Swiss SVP, Cooked by your protagonist Roger Koppel.

What awaits us this year from the sciences in terms of new technological developments? We want to shed light on significant technologies and scientific research areas that could make significant progress in 2021.

I. Artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence (ki) no longer only covers the specific purpose, for which they were created, play, for example chess, donorate databases or detect faces. The learning and optimization process underlying today’s Ki, the so-called "Deep Learning", Enforce a massive mechanical intelligence increase in the width.

This also affects more and more areas that most people are still as a unreal domanes of human ability: intuition, creativity or capture emotions of other people. The latter is probably already a standard ability of KI systems in the next few years. Ki programmer speak of "Affective Computing". Can soon recognize machines our emotions better than other people do this?

In terms of society and world politics, the further development of the KI has a great importance: the country with the most developed KI is highly likely to rise to dominant economic and military power on this planet. At present, two countries around the global ki supremacy: the USA and China. China has caught up in recent years and meanwhile even starts to jump on 1th.

The Europeans were detited in this race and degraded to statists. The basis of the projection of the Americans and Chinese are non-clever researchers, better KI algorithms or better computer programmers, but simply the availability of data. Data is considered "The Ol of 21. Century".

This is more and more a world of total networking that threatens to disappear our privacy. With appropriate software for facial and image recognition and a dense network of cameras, the creation of motion profiles of individual people in real time no longer a problem.

What bruises us if there is no democratic control of the state, and how far from completely uncontrolled manipulative data use and the feeding of KI algorithms can go, the example shows China. We should also be 2021 on the hat.

Ii. Quantum computer

Long goods quantum computer fabric for science fiction. Alone the term seems most people so scary bizarre as exciting-futuristic, but he combines the technological omnipotence of digital calculation with the reinforced complexity and abstractness of the most important physical theory of 20. Century.

But in today’s realitat, the development of the quantum computer promises a new technological revolution that the 21. Century as a certain way, how this was the development of digital circuits for the 20. Century did. Already in the fall of 2019, Google announced that his engineers have succeeded in the construction of a quantum computer, which for the first time can loose a problem at which everyone has gone up the teeth.

Here it was more of a symbolic milestone, because the problem was still strongly academic nature. But already 2021 we witnessed a new Sputnik torque in information technology, in the form of a quantum processor with more than 100 qubits, the real quantum should be achieved. This in turn could dramatically influence five different fields:

      1. Cryptography: Today, gears are based on the re-factorization of the products of two very coarse primes. From a certain number groove, this task is no longer to loose for a classic computer. A quantum computer could create this in minutes.
      2. Solution of complex optimization tasks: The task of finding the optimal solution for many variants is considered to be particularly tricky under mathematics. Such problems occur in industrial logistics, in the design of microchips or in the optimization of traffic sponsors. Already with a small number of variants, classic computers increase in the calculation of optimal solutions. Quantum computers, however, were able to loose such optimization problems in relatively short time.
      3. Artificial intelligence: the used here "Deep neural networks" are associated with hard combinatorial optimization problems that can be dissolved from quantum computers much faster and better than classic computers.
      4. Search in coarse databases: When searching unsorted data quantities, a classic computer must view each data point individually. The search time therefore rises linearly with the number of data points and thus rapidly roughly rough for a classic computer for a classic computer. With a quantum computer, the search time was only followed by a root law. Instead of needing a billion data entry thousands times as long as a million, a quantum computer has only needed just over 30 times as long – in the case very coarse numbers a breathtaking improvement.
      5. Finding new chemical compounds: Even with the simulation of quantum systems, complex optimization problems are always present, in which it comes from many alternatives the prolonged, D.H. Energetically easy configuration of the electrons in complex molecules or atomic links.

      For conventional computers, the corresponding quantum equations are too difficult. Quantum computers, on the other hand, the behavior of the electrons involved may be directly reflected as they behave themselves like a quantum system. With the possible better understanding of molecules and the details of their chemical reactions, for example, develop new medications or far more efficient battery technologies

      Again, it is valid for Europe, the progress of the US and increasingly to catch up by China.

      Iii. Nuclear fusion

      Without coarse public attention, scientists meanwhile make progress in a field of progress that could solve the problems of global energy supply for everywhere: the peaceful use of nuclear fusion. It is about nothing less than the dream, unlimited, clean and safe energy from the thermonuclear fusion of atomic nuclei, the same, which drives our sun and the stars.

      In addition to the mammoth project ITER in the French Cadarache, which is required with massive public funds, which is expected to start with first results from 2030, some privately financed companies of fusion research have also committed themselves. However, they go other ways than the ITER researchers. With alternatives and much smaller reactor technologies, you want to win electricity from merger in the next year, and thus far sooner than iter. Here is a public praise for the best solution for fusion technology.

      Model of the ITER reactor according to the Tokamak principle. Image: IAEA ImageBank / CC BY-SA-2.0

      Once one day, we were able to produce energy like the sun and thus access to the most efficient, safest and environmentally friendly energy form, which offers nature, so this certainly not only a further gross technological progress, but rather Civilian jump, the equivalent of goods with the invention of the steam engine that gave us the energy to us from 250 years ago, completely redcram our society. So it is worthwhile to pursue the intermediate results from this race in 2021.

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