The thought on the trail

To learn the art and keep the learned in mind, is coupled to the limbic system

Two monkeys have been going on for 18 months "at school." Your teachers will offer you 2-4 new scenic impressions in the change of already known image compositions and answers to recognition. Because the "Pupils" Do not talk, eye movements as well as the time to consider and determined until the reaction. Joy in the game and rewards obediently, because the two monkeys are implanted electrodes in the hippocampus.

The working group of Wendy A. Suzuki from the Center for Neural Science at New York University is about the dynamics of nerve cells. Your report in Science wants to annoy their secret. Scientists come to help that the Hippocampus has two cell types, such with lower and others with high activity (spikes / s). The special feature of the investigation awakens from the 18-month time series analysis for a total of 145 neurons.

Expectant stimulation impresses the reaction of neurons. Noteworthy is the differentiated behavior of both cell types. If you pay eight the respective basic activity, some neurons remain uncultivated with known scenery. On the other hand, unknown images in other cells produce a whole fireworks of impulses. With increasing exercise, a sigmoid-formal relationship between the spikes and recovery develops. Complex scenes, on the other hand, which can not be learned and reminded of the monkeys, attract the nerve cells as acting as it is an unknown template.

The temporal course of the learning program (Credit Science)

That learning has something to do with lust and unfulfus to do all the good teachers. Nearby goods, for the motivation to address the limbic system and for learning the coarse cerebral cortex, because Charles Darwin claimed, the intelligence of humans and humans resulted from the rough head thanks to brain mass. The results of the Wendy A working group. However, Suzuki ranks in the confusion of the brain researchers, which was drawn by functional magnetic resonance imaging: much runs subcortically, ie below the coarse cerebral cortex.

The Hippocampusformation as a feature and reminder center has become an intensive research object for almost 5 years after Alzheimer’s patients have been observed. There are also persons with post-traumatic burdens, such as Vietnamveteranes and soldiers from the first Gulf War. However, the results are by no means ultimate. On the one hand, because of the "small" Hippocampus without prior examination does not prove that he was roughly coarse. On the other, because the ALZHEIMER’s disease captures the gross brain as a whole. And finally, the rough brain of man has to be something special. In humans, 80 percent of the brain weight attracted to the coarse cerebral cortex, at the horse 67 percent and the guinea pig 47 percent.

The thought on the trail

The Hippocampus is characterized by rough pyramid cells and rich branches (after M.Clara)

More than 50 years ago, the Neuroanatom Max Clara warned against misunderstanding the Hippocampus formation as a second or extended olfactory system and thus primitive organ. Development history and in the structure of the neuronal network, so was already known at the time, it takes "Smell" a special position. While all other sensory impressions reach the end brain only by mediating the thalamus, the excitations resulting in the olfactory brain are directly forwarded to the coarse brain. The name out of this knowledge "Limbian system" with the hippocampus formation, the corpus amygdaloideum, the gyrus limbicus and the have enabled, which ensures direct connection to the middle brain.

The thought on the trail

The false mark shows the different load in the Hippocampus in learning and remember (functional magnetic resonance tomography, Michael M. Zeeineh et al. Science 23.1.2003, Credit Science)

From this point of view, the limbic system of an input committee is similar to an unsuccessful network. If all impressions have to happen one or the Thalamus, two doors to pass, the activity is unevenly riciger here than in the richly branched higher floors. Investigations from the Brain Mapping Center of UCLA speak of the January of this year, also presented in Science. By means of functional magnetic resonance imaging, the blood flow in the hippocampal formation was measured, while the human subjects had to learn to be learned the names. Michael M. Zeineh described the result with the words: "Learning is a dynamic process. The brain activity increases as soon as new information arrives, and decreases after the information has been in progress."

That coincides with the results of Wendy A. Suzuki and employees. The researchers with the electrodes immediately at the place of action pursue with their investigations a much more ambitious project: "If it succeeds in localizing the nerve cells that are state-of-learning, we will begin to unravel the braid." The aim is to resolve the brain to complete the previous anatomical brain cards: functional circuits and memory modules additionally to the nerve tracks.

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