Viktor Vasnetsov: The four apocalyptic riders (1887)
What influences the attitude of Christians against Jews? – Christian end time and Jews – Part 4
Part 3: John Nelson Darby and the brother in the US and Europe
"Salvation" is generally any religious interpretation of history, and the Christian ideas of the "Final time". Since Christianity springs to Judaism, the end-time ideas also belong to positioning against Judaism.
How Christians see Jews, has changed again and again during the times. The spectrum is wide and often ambivalent, the topics resting. But there are priorities: First, the commonly used Volkische Racism before 1945. Second, the near-conservation in certain evangelical circles after the end of the war – the mass murder had been a court of God, the Jews had to go to Palastina "to return", So that Jesus took back to the earth and the world elusive KONNE.
My coarse father Friedrich Heitmuller, Head of the Free Protestant Municipality Hamburg and Director of the Diakoniewerkes Elim, represented these two views in an exemplary manner. Third, especially since the 1980s, a now often politically oriented Christian Zionism. And fourth Jews mission – existed since the start of Christianity and currently currently, because appropriate groups on the Kirchentag are not active.
Tanach and Old Testament: A Shared Scripture
The thermal thong – for Christians: that "Old Testament" (At) – includes the holy writings of the Jews. The Bible – consisting of old and New Testament (NT) is the Holy Book of Christians. The so-called "canon", So what was set as part of what the AT is concerned between Judaism and Christianity is not quite obvious, and what the Bible is concerned, not between Orthodox, Catholic and Protestant Christianity.
Some topics like "Federation" or "Ruler", play an important role in AT, Ehristentum and NT, as well as in later Christianity. In their design and interpretation, Christians define their ratio to Judaism.
The covenant of God with Israel
In AT, it will be paid several times that God will take a federal government with the people: He is a commitment to them and asks for claims such as love, worship or obedience. A bunch of God with Noah (gene. 9.8-17), with Abraham and his descendants (gene. 15,18 and gene. 17), and with the people of Israel (ex. 19). The prophets then bricken the people again and again to comply with the federal government and interpret aborets as a punishment of God. And they prophesies one "new waistband", which people will no longer break: "I want to give my law in her heart and write to her sense" (Jer. 31, 31-34).1
The disabled ruler
In the AT is occasionally the speech of a coming ruler. For the king or high priest you have been anointed, and "Messiah" (Grazed form the Aramaian word "Mash", "Animal") was in "After-Old Testary" Time a title for one "Healing", that was expected.2 The prophets announced a ruler who saved the people of Israel and erupted an eternal peace rich.3
Strictly speaking, holistic history means not only every religious interpretation of history, but "A history interpretation that sees in human history a development to a destination outside the same, just to salvation to which each historical event is reliably." She comes from the Judian-Christian thinking, but also occurs in Islam.4
Jesus was a Jew, and the first Christians were Jews. Only the apostle Paul missioned intensively among the "Gentle", So the Greeks. Therefore, not by renaming because of its own conversion! – Also his two names – Saul is Hebraian, Paul Hellenistic. The authors of the books and letters that the NT should form were convinced that Jesus was the son of the Judian God of Jahweh and began with him a new time. "But when the time was filled, God sent his son …", writes Paul in the letter to the Galatians (Gal. 4,4). With this background, he and his comrades interpreted the scriptures of the Jews and write the books and letters that later were defined as NT.
The new waistband
From the early Christianity, such prophecies were like those of JER. 31, 31-34 interpreted on Jesus: The first Christians took on this thought of the New Confederation. They saw him in Jesus Christ Erfullt: "Due to his death on the cross, he greeted the new covenant who is no longer just the people of Israel, but to all people and to give them the forgiveness of their seconds."5
Jesus Christ as the disabled ruler
The first Christians interpreted the old prophecies so that Jesus was the rulers disabled to the people of Israel.6 In NT, Jesus is often called "Christ", What is the word translation of Maschiach into Greek, so "Animal" means and first a title and later was a proper name for Jesus.7
How to define Christians their ratio for Judaism
By interpreting Christians for centuries later the canonized Bible and specially such topics – and they do not come around: everything you read understands and interprets and interpret in any way – define your ratio to Judaism.
The fundamental question in Christianity, which one usually does not pronounce, at least not as a modern Protestant – the Catholic Church is less recovering, and many evangelicals are not – is that of salvation necessity. Platt said: Must be converted to Jesus (and belonged to the church) to get into the sky, or the covenant of God continues with Israel, in the sense that the Jews are repeated to salvation?
The question is rarely pronounced, but occasionally one can shape, what the answer was.
Martin Luther’s bosyal allegations are bounced on Jews. His "Pre-modern anti-Semitism" he funding with one "Essay" the Jews and therefore assessed the effectiveness of Jewish stages skeptical. However, he was foreign to him a biological racial theory. This formed the core of the anti-Semitism of the 19. and 20. Century.8 They found their precipitation in Landes- as in Free Churches. Maybe one can attach the effect of this theory to the question: what if a Jew is baptized?
Ambivalence in National Socialism
So there were still 1933 seven Jewish mission companies or branches of such companies in German-speaking countries. They were supported in a low-habe of the state churches, but in the coarse and whole hardly considered. They were first banned spat – the Nazi state probably had the hope that one could isolate Jewish Christians in their own communities and could. But the companies did not give up and were prohibited.9
However, the handling of churches with Judian members was very different. The then Hamburg Landesbishop Franz Tugel justified the Volkian anti-Semitism, but he also insisted that baptized Jews had their place in the church. Free Churches had a weaker position in the Nazi state and scary for their existence compared to the Landeskirchen. For example, Friedrich Heitmuller asked Judian members to leave his community, and the Brother Council decided not to take any more Jews.
His Free Church was not the only one.
Especially in Free Churches Jews were always seen in an ambivalence: as "Heilsbringer and Speaker". Therefore solemn the "Political and / or social arcinist anti-Semitism of the National Socialists under the Free Churches no storm of the city. For example, members of the Free Churches have unlawfully rebelled against the anti-Semitism of National Socialism, but accepted him as self-reliable – and in part even with them".10 The reflections an ambivalence in the free church theology: "Jews are then on the one hand affirmation of their own teaching, healing brag for the future, but on the other hand are also under the God court and are dominated by a particularly reprehensible."11
Such a conclusion brings the current work-up of the story to the light, which has begun only in Free Churches for a long time after the war. For example, the club was organizing a symposium on FreiKirchenforschung in the spring of 2005 "Free churches and anti-Semitism" and brought out the conference commitment later as a book from which this quotes come from.12 And in 2011, a collecting tape appeared with representations of free churchers to the history of their Free Churches.13
In the post-war period, however, one stressed guilt and bube, and for God’s salvation plan.
Salary history in the post-war period: consolation and ENT debt
In the month after the bombing of Hamburg, Friedrich Heitmuller quoted the Bible in a letter to his parishioners with the words "God, your courts are true and justified, although the own hospital and several other houses of the Diakonian work were destroyed, and numerous sisters and patients had come about life. And in the fall of 1945 he demanded within the Free Church Bube as "Bid of the hour".
A possibility to give the terrible experiences of the past years, the lost war, hunger, illness and deprivation, and above all the many losses of the fallen a sense, but was also a special indulgence of the "Salvation". This teaching was already old, but after the war she became up-to-date. You may also offer a cheap way to deal with your own debt against the Jews:
Heitmuller was a trend of this teaching, which is attributed to the British spiritual John Nelson Darby (1800 – 1882). According to her, there are several salvation times (dispensations). Heitmuller wrote several brochures after the war. The current salvation age is coming to an end as soon as a number of people predetermined by God will be converted to Christianity. These will then be blurred in the sky, the Antichrist comes free, Gog and Magog (Russia) to grab, and it follows the battle of Harmagedon. The Jews therefore have the role in God’s salvation plan to glorify God. Jesus first offered the gospel to the Jews, but they had discarded it. Then God beat the Jews with blindness and fault and offered the gospel to the Gentiles. – With this doctrine can, who wants to reare wars and surprises on Jews.
Christian Zionism under evangelicals
Particularly interesting is the further development of the ideology of salvation history under evangelicals in Germany, such as the self-evangelical – Willem Laurens Hornstra with an event of the association for freekirchenforschung: According to this, a new movement and ideology was created in the 1970s and 1980s, the "Christian-Zionist movement". These "has its own historiography, in which, said, is said, Israel makes almost everything right and the Arabs do almost everything wrong." This is not an anti-Semitic or intellectual, on the contrary. But, so Hornstra, here is Israel the "Key to world events" – What just means instrumentalization.15
Part 5: Jewish missionary groups and the Protestant church
Note: The research for this article was demanded and supervised by a scholarship of the journalist association network. The author was a member of a member of an evangelical free church.
The text is also an excerpt from a telepolis multipart of Christian end-time ideas. In him, Ulrike Heitmuller, among other things, staffed with pramlenarism, postmill seniorism and groups in the US and Europe, which still live in a closeness today. In addition, she examines the conflict between Jewish missionary groups and the Protestant church and shows the religious and church-political turprising such ideas.