The diseases of the other

The diseases of the other

Image "The triumph of death", Pieter Bruegel of the Alters (presumably 1562). Illustration: Wikimedia

The Fourth Seal: God Geibel, Fair Flu Black Death – Epidemics in the History of People

And since the fourth seal surgery, I hoarding the voice of the fourth animal saying: Come! And I saw, and behold, a pale horse. And the subsequently Sab, the name bothered death, and the Holle followed him.

Revelation, 6. 7-8

Epidemics accompany human history. They wake vagon art and indefinite fascinations. In addition to medical, they attract the whole society. Corona is just the latest example: Seafish drum in the most urgent.

The history of the epidemics shows that modern companies are vulnerable. Even today, diseases are not as manageable how that our sophisticated society is worthwhile. At the same time, epidemics show the best in humans. Their story is also the ones you get.

Many spat blood

It was a picture of horror: Heavy patients bleeded nasal and ears, many spat blood. Since their lungs hardly work, they suffer from oxygen deficiency and run blue. Death came agonizing, but fast. From October to November 1918, the newspaper reports on a strange flu sloped. Some things what the newspapers reported recalled our presence: school sluggishness were arranged. Cinema, theater and dance events, even worship services banned in many regions.

The use of public transport was imprisoned, which was spoken on open strain under punishment. Over seaport and Bahnhofen were awarded quaranteats, hospitalized insulating stations. For disinfection, chlorine bleach or carbolic acid.

The authorities pointed out that the "Spanish disease" not around the pulmonary patent or hungryphus, but a flu epidemic. The extremely poor supply situation with food spared the situation. Because the world war was finished and the revolution raged in Berlin, hardly the flu has been reported in the newspapers. People took the disease as another fate of fate, leading the growing number of dead to poor dieting back.

100 years ago, Spanish flu wins (influenza). She demanded 50 million deaths from the beginning of the year 1918 to 1920, more than the Pest in 14. century. That at that time particularly young people die, is justified with a surreast of the immune system. In the old ones, the immune system is simply too weak for this overreaction.

At that time everything started relatively harmless, is reported. During the first wave in the spring of 1918, there were very many people, but relatively few died. The declarer, the influenza virus, could only be discovered in 1933. The Spanish flu is the worst plenea of modernity. She changed the company.

"There are no voices, no hurt…"

There is many more epidemics than we suspect. The medical historian Stefan Winkle writes in his over 1.100 pages comprehensive "Cultural history of the epidemics" Uber Lepra ("leprosy"), Milzbrand, Tuberculosis, Cholera, Diphtheria, Wound Infections (times Tetanus, then gas burner, then sepsis is called), About childbed fever, Ruhr, Typhus, Pest, Fleckfieber, Trachom, malaria, sleeping sickness, small pockets, rabies, jaundice, yellow fever, Flu, scratch, tank, parrot disease, the Marburg syndrome and finally about human , "artificial" Places that are used in bioterror of organic war carrying.

Our language betrayed us. Our rhetoric leaves us back in hollow times when we were still prHistoric people. Because when we talk about infectious diseases, we talk about us "infest" Can like a wild animal. That a plague "breaking" like a predator from the coffee.

The most famous plague is still the plague. As you in the middle of the 14. Centuries suddenly invaded the Occident, and spread from the east to the west in a raging speed, the doctors proved to be completely helpless. After all, they knew trains: Pestarzte of the Middle Ages and the Fruhen modern times streaked dressed in a wide coat and with a beak mask like scarecrows around – the clothes helped prevent the dangerous flea bites that were a main supervisor of the plague.

Almost a third of European population died between 1346 and 1350. The poet Petrarca wrote as an eyewitness over the conditions in northern Italy between Milan and Verona: "City and castles were left. There are no voices, no hurt, no pain, no more cry, the voices of the bride and Brautigam, the sound of the lute, the singing of young people and every joy were fell."

"Only a coarse corpse festival / that’s the rest"

The plague created unimaginable social conflicts: many desperate at the cruelty and reinforcement of the fellow human beings. The bads reacted as much as different. Some municipalities rejected it to include escapeons, other did exactly that. Between infected and non-infected city, a hostile ratio developed. Burgers, the escape of other cities buried, threatened the church bann.

For fear of infection, it grabbed shut-off observations, for the most hedged Mediterranean Portstages: First, the Quarteraine was invented in Venice. Since you created the rule that cargo and passengers of incoming ships had to stay 30 days on an island in front of the city before going to land.

Marseille followed this example and raised the deadline to 40 days. To date, therefore, such measures "Quarantine" – from "quarantine", the then Italian expression for 40 days. But it also came to a hard practice: In Genoa you tried to prevent ships by shelling with fire torches. But all this delayed the outbreak only. From the portstages out the plague came to the hinterland. In the summer of 1348 the whole continent was infested by the epidem.

Many people fled into deserted areas. Other visited Sundenbock and it came to Jew pogroms several times. Who sought consolation in religion, often did not do this with the established churches, but in movements like the flagellants who were self-style and singing through straws and fields. From this time also comes from the origin of a well-known German children’s song: "Oh dear augustin augustin augustin, oh you dear augustin – everything is / every day was a feast / and what now / plague the plague / only a rough body party / that’s the rest."

Perception phrases and orientation

Even the object itself makes it clear that case and demise in the world are imminent, except that apparently, as long as Rome remains intact, nothing has to be escaped. But truly, if that’s the main head of the world has fallen and the turnaround has used, who wanted to doubt that then the end of humanity and the world circle has come? That city is it, which so far everything upheld.

Lucius Caecilius Firmianus Lactantius (250-320) CA 311 N.Chr

The term "pest" Is not unique. In Latin he is generally standing for epidemics, and also in other languages is not distinguished between plague, smallpox, cholera and other infectious diseases.

The first was the first "JUSTINIAN PEST", A pandemic, which occurred at the time of the Ostromic Emperor Justinian and first appeared 541 in Egypt and reached 542 Constantinople. It is considered the big ancient epidemic. This disease was not a plague in the true sense.

Transferred was evident through rough flying swarms, whose excessive occurrence was caused by a sudden climatic change – a volcanic eruption in Asia caused an ash cloud that darkened the atmosphere and leaded to a sudden cooling, which stopped about 20 years.

The events in the Ostromic Empire since 541 carry all features of the classic Pestepidemie. The pathogen first felt rodents, especially the black house rack. By a bite of the infected rat flea came the pathogen in the human blood circulation, in the lymph nodes, swelling formed. If these are unstopped or bumped into front, they went out of septic infection and in the episode the lung pest – that ended almost always deadly.

The death rate is scated at about a quarter of the population; These values are very uncertain. In some calculations, a population of 60 percent is the speech. Especially affected were big city. The plague also moved to hunger grade and economic crises. In addition, cattle seekers like a bovine pest.

The monumental habilitation study "The other Age of Justinians. Continent experience and contingency rare in 6. Century N. Chr." From the Tubinger Althistististischer Mischa Meier, the catastrophes occurring in an extraordinary density and severe disasters, during Austinians, takes place (527-565), and asks for their experience and watering. Meier wants to investigate the dealings of Justinians and his administration with these disasters and their effects on the mentality of the population. What were the strategies and interpretation patterns of contingency racking?

The accumulation, density and severity of the catastrophes in particular during the reign of the Emperor of Justinian over the population of the Ostromic Empire" Write Meier "are indeed unique and my knowledge in European history merely with certain developments in the 14th. Century in the wake of black death comparable.

Mischa Meier

The reactions of people to the events connect diffuse end-time expectations coupled with resignation and panic. This seems to reflect an orientation of people in the face of them in breaking events.

Obviously, the Justinian Pest is also a matter of perception of the capacity of disasters. Meier speaks of one "Perceptual sphere". It is undoubtedly amed that the sensitivity for unusual natural events in 6. Decisively increased century.

This increased sensitivity is reflected, among other things, that succinctly nearly every earthquake is recorded and also mentioned earthquakes, which caused no harm at all. Such phenomena are known from our present discourse shift in questions of environmental and climate conditions.

"I lay blind for several days and in gross suffering"

A second gentle of humanity were the smallpox. First, from about 1515, they performed in the newly discovered America, rotted millions of indigenous people, during Europe immune. Then, good 200 years later, the virus was mutated and now mutaten in Western Europe fierce among the now vulnerable Europe from the middle of the 17th century. In 18. Century was one of 13 deaths that are due. The disease did not miss a class and had obviously little to do with lack of hygiene. Even conical families suffered: so the Easter-rich Empress Maria-Theresia lost two of her daughter to the smallpox, a third was lifelongly defaced. Goethe describes in his autobiography "Seal and truth" His own illness in daycas:

The Ubel now also concerned our house and overcome me with very special violence. The whole body was oversat with shine, the face covered, and I lay blindly for several days and in gross suffering … finally … I fell like a mask from the face … I myself was satisfied, after and after losing the spotty skin. But others were merciless enough to remind me ofters at the previous state.

Johann Wolfgang Goethe

Still in the 20th. Century demanded the plague around 300 million deaths worldwide. For smallpox or "Scroll" Is it a virus infection transferred by dry. The death rate was about 30 percent.

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