“One million people sit on the strain because we do not make a point of work”

Interview with Jorn Boewe Uber Ausmab, show and consequences of unpaid additional work in the Federal Republic of Germany

In the debate on the labor market, the dimensions and effects of unpaid additional work are hardly discussed, although this represents a relevant economic factor in favor of employers. Telepolis talked to Jorn Boewe, who in the book "Employment" with a contribution dedicated to the topic.

Mr. Boewe, according to a survey of the Hans-Bockler Foundation, work in 84 percent of companies the people.T. significantly more than you get paid. Which fertils have developed the companies to express their employees to their employees? Jorn Boewe: Something is arranged directly when superb, extra rarely. Normally, variable psychological tricks are used. If z. B. someone comes new to a company, this person will orient itself to the existing behaviors. So, if all employees always come up half an hour and go half an hour later, every newcomer will first behave as well. The mesh is also common that a certain working pens is arranged, which is not to be forced within the regular working time. Normally, the inhibition threshold is high in the staff to point out that you need more time. Finally, one liked in the company not as little resilient and performance-proof. A third point is what in a study of the DIW of Silke Anger than "Investment in the career opportunities" referred to as. Although in my opinion, the terminations are crowded, it correctly describes the facts: Wage dependents often perform unpaid over-work without complaints to improve their development perspectives in the company. "To enhance" Can also mean in this sense, just do not get to the next list. However, the term is "investment" wrong, because an investment is associated with certain rights, while the overtime simply represents a gift to the entrepreneur. Whether this is recognizable in return at a job cast, his cause remains. The fact that someone does for his boss crumbs, he has not yet acquired anything to something. These methods are legal? Wage dependents have a possibility of preventing these legally? Here are the laws to unclear or does not exist? Jorn Boewe: This is conveniently located in a legal gray zone. Clearly illegal goods the thing when the working time law is violated. But in practice, this is often not the case, or the blatements are not so easy to prove. The law becomes Z. B. exercise if regularly worked more than ten hours. Or if the average working time exceeds the period of half a year eight hours per working day. But no law prohibits the fact that employees come to half an hour with a 38.5 hour week every day and walk half an hour later because the work is not to be created. It’s only illegal if the employer orders this directly – the bosses generally hide themselves, especially in the companies where such a thing is systematically operated. If a boss gives his undertakable work tasks that are not to be made in the time available, the legally incurred will run beyond the same. But it is obvious that such a thing is not so easy to prove in court. On the other hand, no one is obliged to do unpaid overtime. Only can it be difficult for the individual employees to defend themselves on mind. If there is a works council in the company, it is easier because it has quite extensive co-determination rights in terms of working hours: it can refuse overtime, to import time rules and influence the service plannation design. However, less than half of the workers in the Federal Republic of Operating Rates is represented, and with a very small part of these representations, one has to ame that they are more likely to be interested in the interests of the business lines. Around 90 percent of all companies do not know any operating rate.

"The unions are not a homogeneous block"

What opportunities have unions to prevent this unpaid incapacity? Jorn Boewe: In principle, the working time can be regulated by collective bargaining. However, there are more and more companies that do not apply to such regulations. More interesting is still the phanomen from companies that have signed a collective agreement, but still systematically put on unpaid overtime. A good example of this is the LIDL works council Ulrike Schramm-de Robertis in your review written together with Daniel Behruzi: "You do not get me small", recently appeared at Kiepenheuer and Witsch. LIDL has already signed a trademark filing in retail many years ago and still set up a system where people were permanently used to multi-work and probably still become. Everywhere, where there is no company rate that control compliance and also draw in court in an emergency, there is a possible way to undermine the tariff carrier. The unions have neglected this for my observation far too long. If you look at the current, pleasing aggressive DGB campaign at the this year works council elections, there seems to be a rethink there. However, it is not done with campaigns. Operating rates just in small and medium-sized enterprises, if they came about, simply lack the legal and practical know-how for everyday small war in the company, and the question of working time is always one of the central mated fields. If a new works council is started in a so far works-free company, with a long-term practice of unpaid additional work, he can not create that without professional trade union recovery and support. And in my experience, there is simply not enough trade union secretare that can afford. In some industries, these tasks are only available from temporary employees "Project base" perceived. And what can the individual employee do? Jorn Boewe: If unpaid multi-work is required or expected, the first step is that I’m overlaying: I want to leave that in the long run? If I say no, the certain risks, but to toss the ass and always want to make the boss all right, is not healthy. The next step ware, all overtime write down, with day, time and occasion. Then you should take his courage and let the hours be marked by the supervisor. Refuses that, you should also document the document. That alone sometimes looks wonders. And once it comes to a confrontation in front of the labor court, you have a chance if you can prove it all – but only then. As a matter of principle, you should look for professional help. We were again on the topic of works council and union. Apparently, the unions in small and medium-sized enterprises are not only slightly represented, they are also there too little … Jorn Boewe: Yes. Especially in smaller and medium-sized companies happens too little. I think that has to do with a lack of problem awareness. For a trade union functionary, which mentally lives in relatively stimulated Rhenish capitalism, the problem has been basically done if the collective agreement is completed. The control of the implementation, which can only work on operational level, is neglected. Unions that approach the things, do not get such distortions with. This also determines that the life reality of trade union employees is increasingly different from that of the workers in the establishments. On the other hand: the unions are not a homogeneous block. Especially at ver.Di can be observed the most diverse developments and tendencies. There you will find the most urgent 80s corporatism in addition to extremely modern, imaginative and militant organizing approaches, which partially reveals, as if they were, say, borrowed the arsenal of such currents such as the Industrial Workers of the World or the Euromayday movement. Apart from that ver.di is a heterogeneous organization as a relatively young merger, probably also plays a role that some unions in recent years on the lower apparatus level group their own people themselves to semi-precarious conditions. I was a few years ago works council in a middle-class media company. One day after Christmas, I called my conditional union secretarin to ask her if she could come to our business meeting in January. "I have already come", she said, "but I do not know if my contract is required." That was on the 27th. December 2005. It is basically scandalos that a union will work your people work under such conditions. On the other hand, this new type of precarene union secretaries definitely no longer belong to Rhenish capitalism, but to the new world of work of the 21. Century, so in contrast to the wiring wars arrived in the realitat. These are people who make unpaid multi-work because they hope their time treaty will be renamed for six months. The union apparatus has created these types of jobs from the same grounds as every other company also: McKinsey told them that they are so power today. In the medium term, however, they may have brought a horde of radical storks into the house, which I find very encouraging. In which industries are such methods particularly common? Jorn Boewe: This is particularly common in my observation throughout the media area and in occupations that have been created in the last ten, fifty years with the distribution of the Internet. Of course, even in coarse parts of retail, where with unpaid multi-work is planned in front, in the building cleaner industry. If you ame that everywhere in coarse companies is rather the rule than the exception, they are certainly not wrong. How do you recognize such companies? Jorn Boewe: If there are particularly many part-time jobs in an industry, this is a strong indication that unpaid multi-treatment is already priced in the calculation. Normal depending on ashesia, as in an advertising agency, she had to shoot without having to get more money on successful activity…. Jorn Boewe: Yes. The prere of unemployment and the threatening perspective to slip in Hartz-IV ratios have been familiar with such mechanisms.

"Historical upheaval situation"

Are these consequences of your comment according to politically? Jorn Boewe: Clearly yes. The Red-Grune Federal Government has created an extensive low-wage sector with the four Hartz laws, which printed labor costs as a whole, the employment transactions enrolled by authoritarian, workers’ rights, and generally the ratio of payroll work and capital in favor of capital changed. These were not collateral damage, which was politically wanted. What effects has the unpaid additional work on overall economy and society? Jorn Boewe: Economically, it is a gift to the companies that save labor costs. What is here "saved up" but is missing the wage dependent as purchasing power, D. H. The domestic demand is peaked. Conservatively treasured this loss – we were also able to say: this redistribution from the bottom up – in the high double-digit billions area, so at least the three percent of gross domestic product. But honestly, I do not think that’s the worst. Although it is called, time is money, but for a man who can satisfy his basic existential needs, time is indeed more important than money. I went a lot of people at this point, but I think they are wrong. This is not a view or taste question. "Time is the room for human development", How to write Marx, and she is the only resource that is absolutely not renewable. If a minority of the majority systematically steals lifetime, the simplicity is asocial. If this sounds too existing, here is a very profane interpretation: the additional work of one is the unemployment of the others. Calculations of the Hans-Bockler Foundation, but also of the more employee-friendly German institute for economic research, does any dependency in the Federal Republic of the week in the week on average a unpaid overtime, maybe a little less. In addition, he will expire 2.2 holidays. That does not hit much, but this volume is more than one million full-time jobs. One million people sit on the strain because we do not make a point of work. Open this development optimistic or more pessimistic? Jorn Boewe: In the past two decades, millions of people have been stamped in unworn, precare work and living conditions – in the Federal Republic of Germany, one of the richest Landers, the motherland of Social Democracy, Europe’s industrialized number one with strong unions, etc. USF. Effective resistance, however, has hardly enough. Nevertheless, I’m careful optimistic. I think we are in a historical upheaval situation, in the course of which it will come to extensive reforming of the workers’ movement. There will certainly be no quick solutions, but a variety of often very opposed developments. The emergence of elective official work and social justice (WASG) 2004 was such an example. With all the limitedness that was undoubtedly a progress, because from this point, the hitherto almost absolute control of the SPD was broken over the unions. This has opened new travel. This also applies to the following nationwide establishment of the Left Party. Of course, one should not make any illusions – this party is rather part of the problem as part of the solution. But it is phanomenally and also pleasing, as the party landscape of the Federal Republic has changed within the last five years. And things will continue to stay in the river. A middle-left government in the federal government with the participation of the left is only a matter of time. Presumably, such a government will cause considerable damage, although perhaps not as much as the Cabinet Schroder / Fischer. There will be a rough whine, but at the same time a political room to the left of the Left Party will be open, which will not stay empty long. Or are you thinking of the strike at Deutsche Bahn 2007/2008. The small locomotive unions showed the Groben DGB unions, how to lead a successful workfather. Funfteen years ago, this was another club of officials, but the connection of the GDR has whirled up everything. I do not want to say that the future lies in professional organizations. I mean rather, the reforming of the workers’ movement will not be the result of a specific line, but very different efforts – partly outside, partly within the DGB unions. Even their conservative apparatus must be under prere that the tariff binding wears and the low-wage sector wave to make anything if they do not want to disappear from the picture area. Remember how ver.di organized in retail tariff dispute in 2008 together with globalization-critical groups Flashmobs. That was already a small cultural revolution. But more important is: The entrepreneurs took over, and ver.DI has defended the right to this form of action in the work of work by all instances. FLASHMOBS can make anyone, but a litigation throughout the final decision of the Federal Labor Court – that you have to do, you need resources, a functional apparatus, etc. In this respect, this was a successful combination of very modern forms of action with the benefits that offers a mass union. If we continue to march in this direction, we will someday see light at the end of the tunnel, I am convinced. (Reinhard YellenTo)

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