The Enigma was cracked like other machines, but hardly known is that the Nazis worked towards the end of the war on other interconnection machines.
Klaus Kopacz is expert for interconnection machines. The Stuttgart collects such devices, researching in archives and cultivates contacts with intentions in the world. Through the unique knowledge that Kopacz Uber Enigma and Co. has built up, he is one of the few who can give information about a topic, with which Krypto historian has so far only on the edge: German interconnection machines, which are created in the turmoil of the Second World War, but no longer in the larger extent to the Insert came.
The final device 41 of the Wanderer company was also "Hitlermuhle" called. Had the Germans replaced the insecure Enigma sooner by this device, then the Second World War probably went different.
For the closing, the Germans in the Second World War mainly used the Enigma, the Lorenz machine and the secret writer T52. In addition, there were a number of other gates, which originated from 1939 and with which the Nazis wanted to replace their interlocking machines in war. None of this device came in time to take a significant impact on the course of the war, but alone the technology made Hitler’s last machines too much more interesting objects.
Despite poor conditions, German engineers succeeded in developing closure gates that are at the best of their time. The Second World Wares were undoubtedly different, the Nazis had already taken care of a change to the new technique.
Alone alone the economy for the development of the new interconnection machines are quite remarkable. For example, tarpaulin, which settled on a gradual reduction of the Enigma, suggest that Hitler’s casting experts have guessed something of the weakness of their most important machine. The view of the long years as a teaching, Hitler’s helpers were the security swallowing of the Enigma completely bluepricked against them, has also proved wrong through this facts. Unfortunately, the source situation in relation to Hitler’s last locking machines is extremely bad. Many documents containing references to the secret machine developments were destroyed at the end of the war or have been lost in the following decades. Persons involved in the manufacture of the equipment or worked with them were in the nineties when Krypto historians were hard to take up, hardly anyway. Many details of this exciting episode of the cryptology story will probably never be clear.
In order to let anything unturned, at this point, a call was started: If a reader has any information about the closing machines described in this chapter and has not had no contact with the experts before, please contact the author of this book.
The most important among Hitler’s last closure machines was undoubtedly the key device 41, which is also due to a crank attached thereto "Hitlermuhle" was designated. The final device 41, whose name indicates a start of planning in 1941, was built by the company Wanderer in Chemnitz, which paid at that time at the leading German manufacturers of typewriters. Similar to the Enigma, the key device 41 was constructed in such a way that a compulsory and a reproduction was identical. However, Hitlermuhle had no letter lamps, but worked with two paper strips. One of them printed out the entered letter sequence, the other the result of the. Decrease.
However, the problem did not emerge from the ENIGMA, but the C-machines of Hagelin. In particular, the hail in-typical rod wheel was also used. Recently, the German Engineers equipped the final device 41 with a closer mechanism more complicated compared to the hailing model to increase security. So far, however, no one has made the Muhe to check this statement on the basis of the few still existing copies.
With the key device 41 Hitler’s trapping experts obviously wanted to replace the Enigma, which was used at that time to tens of thousands in the field. The economy for this planned exchange are not handed down, but the circumstances point out that the Nazi cryptologists of the safety of the Enigma no longer dared. In addition, the simpler operability for the planned resolution also contributed. From one of the experts involved in the construction of the Hitlermuhe, a meaningful quote is handed over. It is said: "The Enigma is dead."
In mid-1944, the High Command of Wehrmacht ordered a total of 11.000 copies of the key case 41. Probably it was a smaller export of the machine whose production never started. 2.000 Other Hitlermuhlen ordered the weather service, which was about a version that instead of letters only the numbers from 0 to 9 captured. Despite these coarse orders, however, only about 500 copies of the keynote 41 were delivered, as the poor supply situation in the last war years prevented a higher production rate. The last Hitlermuhlen were produced at the end of 1944 when the Red Army marched towards East Germany. The planned small export of the device as well as a variant with motor did not result in the experimental stage.
Although the final device 41 from hikers in the last war years came to the practice of practical use, little is known. The information that the specialist literature can be found on this machine is hardly more than half a book page. Some more details that are mentioned in this chapter come from the closing machine expert Klaus Kopacz, who has already rounded up several archives and various other sources in search of the Hitlermuhle. With its private research, Kopacz was able to explain a misunderstanding: The key device 41 is shown in the few existing references partly as a copy of a machine of Boris Hagelin and as "C-41" designated. This designation corresponds to the then naming of Hagelins company. Kopacz, however, found no indication that the Hitlermuhle was named by the users or the manufacturer ever C-41. Despite all the similarities, she is not a faithful copy of a haily.
The Stuttgart closing machine expert also knows a person who has still worked on war times with the key device 41. This is a 80-year man who was active in the Second World War for the defense, ie in the intelligence area,. When defense was a standard apparatus for the interaction one of the numerous variants of the Enigma ("Defense Enigma"), during the Hitlermuhle, according to the mentioned contains, the Hitlermuhle is usually still unused. In addition, Kopacz has no additional person spurt despite the intensive search, which knows the key device 41 from the practice. Even in Chemnitz, the then seat of the hiker works, he researched in vain. 60 years after the end of the war, the chances are to get first-hand reports, falling to a minimum.
In view of the poor source situation, Krypto historians continue to refer only to one of the few anecdotes, which is handed over in connection with the final device 41. This contributed to Norway, where a Hitlermuhle was found shortly after the end of the war, in which the last printed message still stuck. She was:
The leader is dead. THE FIGHT GOES ON. Donitz.
The radio driver obviously wanted the longitude after the decisions of the message.
The Siemens T43
Another German closure machine from recent years of the Second World War, which is only little known, is the T43 of Siemens Necklace. This device is considered successor to the secret writer T52, also from Siemens Collar, a leader of today’s Siemens Group, came from. As the secret writer also served the T43 of the closure of telex. According to experts, only about 30 to 50 of these machines were built and used in the last few months of the Germans on a highest level. Individual copies should also be used in Norway, Spain and Sudamerica.
One of the few pictures received from the T43. Probably some copies have survived the war, but they are considered lost.
The T43 is obvious to the first machines that worked according to the principle of the One Time Pad. The random numbers necessary for this function were supplied to the device in the form of perforated stripes. Since the ONE Time Pad is the only known method that is proven to be sure, the T43 was not cracked when properly. However, the machine managed rough amounts of randomly perforated stripes that were not used twice. So that no radioist was tempted, the T43 pore all processed stripes and made them useless for reusable.
To date, the T43 has remained a strange mystery. After the war, the TiCom Commission took the removal of six copies in the US and at the same time bring six German closing specialists at the same time. The machines used in Norway were transported to Britchley Park in the British Decixer Center. The Allies lacked all the information about the then ultramodern machine under closure.
Less lacking, however, why nothing has changed to this secret clustering until today. Neither the British nor the Americans have only confirmed the existence of the T43, let alone any specimens made publicly accessed. Since all other machines are lost in this type, the T43 is considered a kind of phantom of crypto history. Who wants to know how the T43 looked, must be with the few acquaintances that exist by her. These come from the long-term Siemens Employee Wolfgang Mache, which is considered the most important expert for closing machines from the Siemens environment. Already several hobby researchers believed to be stabbed on specimens of a T43 or on components thereof. However, the stucco theme belonged to them all to other machines.
In addition to the Hitlermuhle and the T43 other German interconnection machines are evidenced for the last years of war. One of them is the final device 39, which has so far as no publications. The few information listed here in turn come from the expert and collector Klaus Kopacz. As the name implies, the final device 39 was created, mostly as "SG 39" was curled in 1939. It was from the company telephone construction and normal time (TN) whose name was wounded on Telenorma and that started in the Bosch Group. At the production of the Gerat, the hiker works in Chemnitz should also be involved, which could not be concluded.
The final device 39 was a second generation rotor closure machine in which the detection of the rotors was at irregular manner. Probably the detachment should sometime the enigma, but it never went into series.
Hardly known is about a device called bright secret writer. It was made by the Kiel company Hell, the later rising in the Siemens Group. Bright, especially with the 1929 patented light writer, made a name that you can call the leader of the fax candidate. The clerk was used militarian by the Germans in the Second World War, whereby the robustness and the low storage arguments made sure that many sparkers draw the device the telex.
Krypto historians is the company Hell but not known by the clerk, but by the production of interconnection machines in the firty years. These were the gates developed by Boris Hagelin, which was produced in Kiel in a license and, among other things, supplied to the Bundeswehr. Is largely unknown, however, is that the company was not only after, but already during the Second World War, interconnection machines.
Wolfgang Mache, the leading expert for closing machines from the Siemens environment, has found this with his research, including the company primer Rudolf Bright (1901-2002) respondents. According to Makes, a first pattern of the bright secret writer in 1944, the year later, six copies were used on the Mediterranean in ships and submarines. Over the functionality of the machine, you can only shove: by Erich Huttenhain, the most important German cryptology experts at the time of the Third Reich, WEIB make that the bright secret writer 235 offer different replacement possibilities per letter. Since each letter has been encoded with 7 × 5 binary products, this indicates a one-time pad method.
However, it can not have traded around a real one time pad, as Huttenhain indicated a period of 1014. Approximately caused toothed raders with a different number of dental positions made for this stapling new random patterns in the form of 35-digit binarian numbers, which repeated only after 1014 steps. More information about the bright secret writer Wolfgang Mache did not trace, though he traveled to his research to Greece. "There is not a single known source that delivers a location description", reported to the author. "Not even Rudolf bright himself knew details of it."
Last but not least, the legendary Toplitzsee was able to play a role in connection with Hitler’s last machines. At the waters in the Easter Salzkammergut, the Nazis in the Second World War performed various research activities and sinked the traces of their work at the end of the war. Through the numerous finds, the Toplitzsee developed after the war to a Mecca for historians and treasure sweep. In addition to false pound notes, with which Hitler wanted to harm the British economy, diver boosts on explosives, weapons and all sorts of technical device. The amber room or a Nazi gold treasure, according to which Gluckritter searched again and again, did not give the 100 meters deep waxes yet.
This Enigma Rotor was also found in the Toplitzsee. The wiring and marking with the letter "S" are unique among the previously known rotors
Dafur found several enigmas in the bank area of the Toplitzsee. In the middle of the sheathing, where the Nazi researchers obviously dispose of the particularly explosive relics, one gives a few items that are of particular interest for Krypto historians. For example, the rotor of a Heeres and Air Force Enigma, which has a special feature: it carries as imprint the letter "S".
Locking machine expert Klaus Kopacz has never seen before a Enigma rotor marked in this way. The wiring of the stucco is unique among the previously known copies. For which special task the Nazis produced this Enigma rotor is not known.
This nine slot belonged to a machine, which was salvaged from the Toplitzsee. Whose purpose is unknown, but it could be a language clamping device.
For an even rough ratsel, another Toplitzsee fund, which also comes from the middle of the wrist. It’s about a technical device that consists of a cabinet frame with different slots. Nine of the slot were saved and are today in "Rottau Museum for vehicles, defensive technology and contemporary history" In the nearby Passau. So far, no one could identify the purpose of this device. However, Klaus Kopacz hold it for conceivable that it is a speech dresser or a machine to crack such codes. Maybe Hitler’s last locking machine has landed at the end of the war in the Toplitzsee.
The article was taken from the author’s just published book:
Klaus Schmeh: The world of secret signs. The fascinating history of the shutter. With a charge word of prof. Dr. C. Pair. Verlag W3L. 368 pages with 64 photos, including 10 color photos. 29,90 Euro.
Raffle: Who Lost Funf Krypto-Ratsel?
1) A class of deciphering methods is called:
a) Flat Flat Attacks B) Side Channel Attacks C) Kantenbach Analyzes D) Corner Current Penetrations
2) What quote of a well-known poet is covered in the following text:
Yn It Sedy, Bog Gnifi Wdn Agnig.
3) How bolted the inventor of the Enigma?
a) Arthur Tonius b) Arthur Steinius C) Arthur Scherbius
4) Which important feature of cryptologists has the following section (tip: they drove a frequent analysis):
What’s this? The child is it. The child dares, but you do not dare. Do not you believe me, then I’m home, yard, table and chair. What I did, I did with strength and decency. I wore brave Most for barrel, but milk does not have.
5) A US closing machine hb:
a) Kaba B) Alibaba C) Sigaba D) Straba e) Helaba
Under the correct submissions of the FUF Krypto-Ratsel, W3L is giving away a booker and e-learning courses from the W3L publishing program every month by the end of 2004 (the right turn is excluded). Please send to secret sign @ w3l.de.