Employees of the rescue center of Kamchatka in the district of Bystrinsky to get forest band. Image: Emercom, Ministry of Emergency Situations, Russia / CC by 4.0
The heat wave in Siberia sole dramatic forest binders out. During this day, greenhouse gases from melting permafrost influence the weather in other parts of the world
Werchojansk is located in the east of Siberia north of the Arctic Circle. With a lowest temperature of – 67.8 ° C, the city was previously considered a coldest place in the world. Until the 20th. June 2020, when the thermometer indicated record-sensitive 38 degrees Celsius. It was the highest temperature ever measured north of the Polar Circle say experts (rising methane emissions).
For this reason, above all, the sideline winds have been, which brought the tropical air into the region, says Olga Zolina from Shirshov Institute for Oceanology. This does not explain the continuing heat periode in wide parts of Siberia, says otherwise Levermann from the Potsdam Institute for Climate Facco Research. From January to May this year it was seven degrees in Siberia seven degrees warm than usual. This heat phenomenon should not be explained by individual wind strings nor with so-called jet streams.
Normally, low-prere and high prere systems take turns to warm and cooler air in the region. But in winter 2019/20, a warm jet stream brought ice cream and snow to melt. So it was from January to June 2020 in the examination region by more than five degrees warm than the average of 1981 to 2010. Without the human influence on the climate, so extremely high temperatures are not to explain, Andrew Ciavarella is convinced by the British Weather Service UK Met Office.
Heatwave through climate change "600 times more likely"
Together with other European scientists from World Weather Attribution, he published a study on climate death in Siberia in mid-July. For their on-site temperature quantities and throughout the region, scientists recognize a clear connection to the climate change caused by man. So a similar long heat periode around 1900 have been at least two degrees Celsius Kuhleer, write.
The heat wave, which Siberia rolled over from January to June 2020, had become more likely by climate change at least 600 times. In Werchojansk alone, the maximum junction temperatures were at least one degree in the year 1900. And in width parts of Siberia, temperatures were up to ten degrees over the June average. The climate researchers expect a temperature increase of at least 0.5 to 5 degrees Celsius until 2050 today.
According to the European Earth Observation Program Copernicus (CAMS) alone by Arctic Waldbanden in June of this year 56 megatonnes carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, three megatons more than in the same month of the previous year. The highest emission levels have been measured in the past 18 years. Dryness and record temperatures in the Arctic part of Siberia, especially in the regions of Yakutia and Tschukotka, powered by strong winds, played the fire again and again.
Meanwhile, the Russian government in seven regions of Siberia did the state of emergency. The smoke of forest bonds contains numerous pollutants such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, cursive organic compounds and solid aerosol particles.
When comparing the carbon monoxide content in the atmosphere for June 2020 with the June average of 2003 – 2019, the experts found that in the largest part of the northern Hemisphare in the last month generally lower than normal. In the northeastern Siberia, in the area of the brane, however, they were unusually high.
People with respiratory diseases especially danger
The situation in Siberia is worse than in July last year, it is called. Since the beginning of the year, a forest area of 8 million hectares has already burned. In 2019, it was estimated to be 15 million hectares, a flat, more than twice as coarse as Bavaria.
In addition, it allows a Russian law for five years, fire, which do not threaten either businesses or settlements, easy to ignore. Thus, from a cost-round brande, only there is lobed where people live.
If the city and Dorfer sink into thick smoke, people with respiratory diseases are particularly danger. This concerns particularly patients with Covid-19 in the clinics. On tree, the fire missed, Black Siberian silk moths love themselves. Through the infestation, the tree is more accurate for fire. And in lakes and riverside the fish dive into deeper waxes because it is further below Kuhler.
In the polar regions, temperatures rise faster than elsewhere, because the sea troughs transport warm to the poles and let reflective ice and snowmen. The most affected are the permafrost floor, which occupy a sixth of the entire earth’s surface. They are soil that are frozen for at least two years without interruption. Some of these ground have been frozen for millennia – to several hundred meters – in extreme cases up to 1.500 meters – deep.
From 2007 to 2016, scientists of the International Permafrost Network GTN-P (Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost) and the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) Permafrostboden of the Arctic, Antarctic, as well as in the Central Asia high mountains and the Alps. The results at the beginning of January 2019 in the trade magazine Nature Communications: In the bottom of the soil, the temperature in more than ten meters depth had increased by an average of 0.3 degrees Celsius.
As the quantities resulted, the Permafrostboden had emerged within ten years of 71 of the 123 examined measuring points, in Siberia at individual wells by 0.9 degrees. In the boreholes of the Antarctic, the researchers recorded an increase of 0.37 degrees. In Permafrost floor of the Himalaya, in the Nordic mountains as well as in the Alps by an average of 0.19 degrees Celsius.
The frozen soil preserve overrests of plants and animals that are decomposed during the thaw of microorganisms. These processes releases carbon dioxide and methane into the atmosphere, which further strengthens the greenhouse effect, because methane acts 25 times stronger than carbon dioxide. Ice-free surfaces absorb more warm, which in turn accelerates the emphasis.
Scientists predict that sole greenhouse gases alone will increase the global temperature up to 2100 by 0.27 degrees Celsius by up to 0.27 degrees. How much permafrost floor is when thawing, you are uninsed. Obviously, that the dew process, which was lasting in a natural cycle to millions of years, is now passing within a human lifespan, states Paul Schuster from United States Geological Survey.
Escape mercury poisones the environment
The fire in the woods defects the Permafrost floor in a threefold manner: On the one hand through the warm on the surface. On the other hand it burns shrub and graser, which protects the permafrost floor in front of the sun. Above all, however, the layer of the dark burned peat floors in the tundra up to 70 percent more sunlight on as intact peat floor. So the warm years can continue to spread in the substrate.
Last but not least, the brande influence the oxygen content in the atmosphere, says Alexander Fjodorov from the Melnikow Permafrost Institute in the InterWiece with ZDF. He escapes a sweeping climate warming, should continue the brand.
In addition, the soil of the polar regions store huge amounts of mercury. Mercury is emitted by volcanic eruptions and forest bands but also by industry and coal-fired power plants in coarse quantities in the atmosphere. In the gas-shaped state it is blown with the airflowings to the poles, where it fertilizes in the ground.
During the thawing it is released into the environment and concludes into the food chain of marine animals, seals and icebar – and over the fishing also in human food. In the Suden of Antarctic, for example, individual sea regions are heavily burdened with mercury than the inhabited custs. In the Antarctic, mercury has already been detected in the blood of seals.