Energy turning must receive speed again

Energy turning must receive speed again

Image: mrganso / pixabay.com

The energy and climate weekend: a progress report with little progress, the discussion about a CO2 tax, plastic mull and floating power-to-gas plants

Even if the second progress report on the energy transition of the Federal Ministry of Economics (BMWI) first turns out positive, it is more or less an arresting deficiencies in climate policy.

"Positive succeeds: The share of renewable energies at gross power consumption was 36 percent in 2017. In 2018, another start-up is recorded. At the same time, the paradigm shift, which was completed on the basis of the EEG 2017, leads towards competitively identified malls to a significantly more cost-effective expansion of renewable energies", it is called in the report. The Commission also "Growth, structural change and work" Limited goal for a coal exit until 2038 is highlighted positively. But then the list of misses, for example the energy efficiency target of 20 percent energy savings, starts up to 2020 or the targeted energy savings in the building sector.

In the transport sector, it looks even worse. "The final energy consumption in traffic developed with an increase of 2.4 percent towards the previous year and by 6.5 percent of the year 2005 continues to counterplay to the objectives of the energy concept. It can be amed that the 2020 target (minus 10 percent) can be achieved under the previous framework conditions only after 2030. Significant further efforts are required to initiate a trend reversal as soon as possible."

In terms of future solutions, in particular, the interim report presented in Marz is the interim report of the national platform "Future of the mobility" mentioned. We remember: Federal Minister of Transport Andreas Scheuer (CSU) had placed in advance in advance and without scientific arguments against a proposal of the transport experts to introduce a general speed limit on highways.

On page 5 of the progress report, the condition of the climate policy total failure can be found in a positive sentence: "Greenhouse gas emissions are clearly reflected in 2017 and after the first estimation of 2018 significantly. In the 1990, they fell by 27.5 percent in 2017 in 2017." Say: By the end of 2017, 12.5 percent were missing to reach the goal of emission reduction by 40 percent by 2020. Again, reference is made to the work of the Structural Change Commission, which should develop proposals "the cheeks to achieve the climate goal for 2020 as far as possible to reduce". Within a year, however, hardly wonders are expected.

When expanding renewable electricity production, the goal for 2020 was scarce. In order to achieve a share of renewable electricity from 65 percent to 2030, a number of necessary measures are named. To do this, the expulsion of further flat for the expansion of wind energy on land and a pulled grid expansion. In addition, a strong sector coupling between electricity, warm and traffic is required.

Wind energy stagnates

In fact, it is that the expansion of wind energy on land currently stagnates, as reported to the industry information service IWR. In the first five months of 2019, wind turbines on land with a capacity of about 194 megawatts went new operation. In 2018, gross build-up of wind energy on land was 2.402 megawatts and thus fell very low. But even this level will probably be missed in 2019.

Also at European level should be huge during the expansion of wind and solar energy. This is apparent from a special report of the European Court of Auditors. Listed wind energy and PV from 2005 even gross growth rates, developed the development since 2014. For example, half of the Member States were able to miss their goals in the field of renewable energies for 2020. The pruds of the Court of Auditors acknowledge that the demand was widely too high, the lowering of the demand then had a deterrent worked.

The CDU and the CO2 tax

In the CDU, the introduction of a CO2 tax is currently being argued. The CDU chairman Annegret Kramp-Karrenbauer had already excluded a CO2 tax at the beginning of May, including the argument that she could highly burden job commuters and low earners. But now the CDU had to plug in an election with the European elections to read the coarse part in response to their defective climate policy.

Now the grouping has "Union of the center" a concept for climate protection provided. This provides for a general CO2 levy of 60 euros per tonne, which should rise to 120 euros by 2030, as the Suddeutsche Zeitung reports. According to Frankfurter General Zeitung, the CDU now wants to debate on a model for the CO2 pricing until September.

For a CO2 tax speaks a new study by the Potsdam Institute for ClimateFolding Research. "So that the coal outward exit really brings something to the stabilization of our climate, it must be combined with a minimum price to CO2 or the release of emission certificates", it is called in a press release of the PIK.

A reduction and finally an exit from coal streams could otherwise drove to a shift. First, a part of the coal-fired power plants was turned off, the total amount of electricity produced was sinking and the stream becomes more expensive. This in turn could be incentive for the operators of the remaining coal-fired power plants to produce more power. At the European level, the German coal exit was sinking demand for emission certificates and thus their price. In turn, this was an incentive for foreign coal power plant operators to produce more electricity. However, was a CO2 price of 30 to 60 euros per ton by 2030 and were also deleted emission certificates, such displacement effects could be avoided.

Plastic mull as an emission source

The burning of fossil raw materials is the big source for greenhouse gas emissions, but not the only one. A growing problem could also show the amount of plastic, which has accumulated – to three quarters of the crowd produced since 1950 in the form of Mull – on Earth.

Plastics are made of OL and gas and refill greenhouse gases during their decay. This is followed by a chapter of the Plastic Atlas published by the Heinrich-Boll Foundation. Emissions from the previous and predicted plastic production by 2050 as well as from the combustion of plastic falls were able to release 56 gigatonnes carbon dioxide equivalents. This corresponds to 10 to 13 percent of the remaining carbon budget by 2050, which should not be exceeded when the global embrocation is to be restricted to 1.5 degrees.

However, the emissions of plastic falls could also be high when more and more plastic was burned to study the pollution by plastic. Official plastic recycling ratios of 45 percent in Germany are at best misleading – they only print out which share involved in the recycling companies, but not how they really use the plastic mull. The actual recycling rate for plastic in Germany, ie, for recycling, in which new plastic products are produced, is just 15.6 percent.

Using the seas as fuel factories for CO2-neutral traffic, a group of scientists from various research institutes from Switzerland and Norway. With the aid of huge floating photovoltaic islands, hydrogen should be obtained by electrolysis and then converted to methanol with carbon dioxide from the seawater. The goods in principle no new technique, but floating power-to-gas or. Power-to-Liquid plants.

For this to lay the production to the sea, two things were talking – on the one hand the high CO2 concentration in seawater, on the other, that there is no flat competition. The researchers have calculated, among other things, how this technique had to be dimensioned to bind an equivalent of the in-traffic carbon dioxide. The result: 170.000 floating methanol factories, each consisting of 70 PV islands with 100 square meters of flat. Each of these methanol factories was cost 90 million US dollars. That sounds a reasonable utopian and could be associated with massive raw material consumption and previously unknown environmental impact. So far, it is hardly more than a thought experiment.

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