Bright mini-quasar

Astronomers analyzed microquasar emitting strong gamma rays

Black punches are known to be extremely compact structures that generate themselves from dying stars and breastfeed their hunger by absorbing any form of matter and energy greedy. In all, these gravity traps in all Groben classes. While the coasted among them as a supermassive black punch in the figure of Quasars give the honor, the smaller ones sometimes wait as microquasare. Such a one has investigated an international astronomer team with the gamma-ray telescopic magic and found that the targeted compact formation radiates periodically – very intense.

As the American physicist John Archibald Wheeler in 1967 the significant name "Black Holes" (Black punch) gave the then astrophysicists, whether these mysterious natural phenomena, in whose centers of space and time allegedly the temporal blessing, could be real-real. But what already the English geologist and physicist John Mitchell (1724-1793) in 1783 prepared for the first time and what his successors could only speculate for a long time, nowadays in astrophysics is no longer a hypothetical imagination product.

Hubble Image (in the optical light) and chandra photo (rontgen area) of two super-massive black punches in the heart of the galaxy NGC 6240. They will merge together in a few hundred million years. Image: Optical: R.P.Van der Marel J.Gersen (STSCI), NASA; X-Ray: S.Combat G.Hasinger (MPE) et al., CXC, NASA

Although black punch, which are born from moldy stars and in the course of their existence, absorb all the form of matter and energy, emit ray, gamma and infrared radiation or distort the space time due to their strong gravity, the greatness of the astronomers is sure that These invisible cosmic one-way straps that occur in the universe in all coarse classes, there are no rarity there.

Galaxy NGC 4319 and a Quasar (right on the top of the picture). Image: R. Knacle (Penn State Erie) et al., Hubble Heritage Team, NASA

Three- to Trochfache Sonnenmasse

As a special representative of these bizarre vagabonds in all, so-called microquasare has now made a name. Such cosmic structures are recorded in astronomical technical lailings due to their observed properties as miniature expenditure of Quasaren. While behind vast quasars supermassive black punches with the millions of billions of the sun hide the sun, microquasare – Nomen Est Omen – in comparison to extremely small black punches are. You just have the 3- to 30fache solar mass. On the other hand, microquasare theoretically can be neutron stars with only a few sun masses, which circle a "normal" sun in a very tight orbit. Ergo can not be sure of astronomers during the study of a microquasar, often whether they have a neutron star or a black hole in front of the lens.

Microquasare are preferably in binary systems at home. In principle, they accompany in the form of a black hole or neutron star a in terms of mass average star – in a very tight orbit. Through the extreme gravity field of this object, matter is filtered off with suction from the escalators and falls in spirally shaped tracks on the compact core. The material flow is sometimes so rough that the compact core exhibits the material as a high-energy bipolar jet. This moves almost with lighting speed, just as this is in active galaxies, ie "real" quasars, gear and gift.

Jets, whether rough or small, still pay to the coarse cosmic mysteries. As is exactly the fact that parts of the material absorbed by the microquasar’s physically absorbed by the poles are shot into space in tightly contaminated plasma rays with nearly light speed, is completely veiled to date. Certainly is that this process is enormously broadened a lot of radio and gamma radiation.

Microquasare near the earth

For astronomers, the crucial difference between these objects is not alone in their gross. Rather, it is the space close to the earth that makes microquasare so interesting. While the super massive quasare billions of light years away on the edge of the universe in front of themselves, their miniature expenditures hide, at least some representatives of it, practically in front of our astronomical home tour and are thus easier and more accurate to watch.

Even if the scientists could now locate only 20 mini-quasars, so they still hope to win with these mysterious celestial skiers valuable jerks on their coarse role models on the edge of the cosmos.

Microquasar. Image: esa / hubble

It depends its attention primarily on the high-energy jets, which emit both quasar types in different ways and in different frequency. For a quasar jet hardly undertaken for an observer in a period of several 100 years, the radiation of a microquasar varies in the course of days. Thanks to such short periods, astronomers can target the different stages of mini-quasars specifically.

Exactly this acted an international astronomer team, which has more than 130 researchers from nine different states, with the Magic Telescope (Major Atmospheric Gamma Imaging Cherenkov) in the weeks between October 2005 and Marz 2006. How the researchers report in the current ie of the ScienceExpress science online edition, they observe the microquasar LS I +61 303 during this period.

This compact structure, which could be a black hole or a neutron star, surrounds a sonorous (average) star in a very tight orbit. In this case, LS I +61 303 emits over its jets extremely high-energy gamma radiation, whose intensity fluctuates in the course of a circulation. During the 26-day circulation around the star, it will be noticing for the formation of jets in which the radiation varies only slightly, but at least once per orbit achieved a significant highest value. According to theory, this value had always been on the highest when the escalators had the slightest distance to the neutron star. However, since this was not the case, the scientists believe that the plasma trays are ultimately the result of the interaction between the two stars. In order to locate the gamma radiation precisely, Magic does not focus on the gamma rays itself, but on short light flashes. Such form when gamma rays meet the Earth’s atmosphere.

Magic is with a mirror diameter of 17 meters the currently large gamma ray telescope. It has been in October 2003 on the Roque de los Muchachos, the highest mountain of the Spanish island La Palma, in 2225 meters high in operation.

Gamma rays, which are completely absorbed by the earthly atmosphere, meet us from many areas of the universe. They are very short-wave and extremely high-energy electromagnetic rays. They arise when an excited atomic nucleus is overlapped in a more stable state or form (on earth) when decaying radioactive substances, respectively with the couple destruction. Although these huge explosions are unpredictable, and although their accurate origin is unclear, the star researchers get thanks to their existence valuable information about neutron stars, black punches, super or hyper-novae and quasare and also news from microquasaren.

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