An ideology in the end: the global drug prohibition

The corset of the UN search fiber conventions and the "War against the drugs" is increasingly questioned – a consideration of the "International day against drug abuse and unauthorized search fabric traffic"

As in hardly any other internationally regulated policy area, there was almost uniform agreement in the global drug policy over decades. Democratic governments of any direction, communist regimes, militaryism and postcolonial states agreed to prevent the handling of noise such as cocaine, heroin and cannabis. A government that challenges the international canon has to be expected to today with stigmatization, isolation and serious consequences. Hardly any other policy is characterized by Dogmas and taboos like this. Nevertheless, outside the UN is the "War against the drugs" Increasingly recognized as untenable policy and ideology. Least, it seems, the governments interested in the fate of most affected: the small producers, consumers and dependents. Critical remarks on "War against the drugs" Easy to the international day take place against drug abuse and unauthorized search fabric traffic.

Doubtful motto of the United Nations: "A drug-free world – we do it"

The decades of influence in drug policy is not alone on the enormous international printing of their first vorchmacher, the USA, influencing. Damonization of drugs is generally a multi-usable vehicle for governments, as the sociologist Harry Levine identified last year in the International Journal of Drug Policy. Government representatives, media and other authorities had recognized that all conceivable problems on drug dependence, drug abuse and simple consumption could be milled. In addition, drugs and drug use were maintained as enemy images and instrumentalized: to increase the conditions for the media, as proof of a strict government policy and the mobilization of electoral votes in the miscellaneous population. Drugbar used as a fundamental to the expansion of the powers of law enforcement authorities, for the undermining of burger rights, for military repression and concealed operations.

Quasi "collateral damage" 4.7 percent of world-free-of-world-volcanization with an age of 15 years or 200 million people are criminalized as drug users, ied billions in billions for law enforcement and excavation measures, as well as smallholders in the producer policies rendered military. In his new book "The hypocritical company" The US Journalist Eric Schlosser points out that in the USA alone 2001 about 724.000 people were arrested because they have violated cannabis laws. In many US states a capital crime, which can lead to life imprisonment. Lorenz Bollinger, Professor at the University of Bremen, notes that attributive 50 percent of the prisoners are detained in criminal and investigative in Germany in connection with drug labels.

The search fiber conventions

The framework of international drug policies determine the United Nations Aid Material Conventions: The Convention on Search Fabrics (1961), the Convention on Psychotropic Substances (1971); and the convention against illegal trade in drugs and psychotropic substances (1988). Each country in the world has either ratified the conventions or aligned his striking laws according to them.

The rules aims for a comprehensive ban on noise and psychoactive substances. The 1961 convention obliges the joined states, "Production, manufacturing, export, import, distribution of, trade in, use and owned by drugs" exclusive "Medical and scientific purposes" to limit. It is parked in particular on opium, heroin, koka, cocaine and cannabis, in the appendix are more than 100 other substances. The production and the sale must be punishable, according to the convention of 1988, the possession or cultivation for personal use must be prosecuted to prosecution. In UN terminology, the comprehensive drug ban becomes euphemisch as "Drug control" designated.

Prohibition and organized crimetate

Euphemism does not surprise, but in this way obvious analogies for failed alcohibibes in the USA avoided. In your book "Mafia Global" Steps Berndt Georg Thamm and Konrad Freiberg the alcohol ban from 1919/20 to 1933 as an obstacle of organized criminality in the USA. Prohibition did not cause the population to restrict its alcohol consumption. Consumption and trade shifted only to the substrate where it became the finance engine of the criminality. In 1934, a year after prohibition end, they concluded so criminal criminal gangs in a nationwide syndicate, the decades of continued existence. Parts of this were immediately dedicated to the heroin trade.

The illegal drug market allows for heavy-criminal networks year for year billion profits. The various syndicates of the organized criminalitat are today in accordance with uncertain estimates worldwide between 500 billion and over a trillion US dollar – a coarse part of it through drug trafficking. This corresponds to about 3 to 4 percent of the good and services produced in the entire global economy.

An ideology in the end: the global drug prohibition

Cocaine production 1985 to 2002, Source: UNODC

Repression ineffective

The unemployment of repression is one of the points where the growing criticism is. In the first years after the turn of the millennium, after Schlossers, for example, the US government ied about $ 4 billion a year in the fight against cannabis – the cannabis consumption in the US was not reduced. In a prior notice of the Bernauer’s Officer Muller in front of the Federal Scarf Court of Marz 2002, after deportation of leading scientists were found that "a ponalization of the drug cannabis for its spread not the slightest role" games. The spread of the drug cannabis is ultimately lower in the Netherlands, in which a liberal deal is maintained, was ultimately lower than in countries which were operated by repressive drug policies.

In Malaysia, the death penalty planned since 1952 could not end the drug smuggling. As a further example, Colombia can be used. With a treasured world market share of about three quarters, the country is considered a large cocaine producer. Between 1980 and 2001, the classroom is according to the news agency IPS of 5.000 to 145.000 hectares increased by 29 times. Despite the 1999 by the US with 1.3 billion US dollars "Plan Colombia" and Militaric Drawing Methods have failed to significantly reduce cocaine production. This could also contain the contamination of Uber 400.000 hectares of land with aggressive plant poisons Nothing other.

How much global drug policy has decoupled from the realitat, the goal of the same in 1998 by the special session of the UN General Assembly shows a target until 2008 "drug-free world" want to assert. From 1997 to 2002, the number of consumers in the taxation of 15 years after the presentation of the UNDR drug control program has increased from about 3.7 to 4.7 percent worldwide. Instead of dragging the emergency brake in the face of the half-time balance, as required by numerous non-governmental organizations, the UN has aimed for a purpose.

War logic missed

The war logic of UN drug policy suggests that one "final victory" be possible. The complexity of the drug problem will look over. When the KOKA build-up in Peru and Bolivia are backing, she rose in Colombia – and vice versa. Meanwhile, the cultivation practice in Colombia adapts to the benefits. "What happens is the atomization of the drug plantings in many small plots, often in isolated layers, which can hardly be scorned when supervised", Allowed Juan Forero in a current report.

The breaking of drug rings also arises as a fight against a Hydra. In order to eliminate the Colombian Drug Baron Pablo Escobar, a concentration of all power required. Already in 1983, his on cocaine trading-based committed to five billion US dollars was scatzed, 1989 listed in the Forbes magazine as a senghappest people in the world. At the zaha and burger-war-related conflict with Escobar, American and Colombian applications had to concentrate on site at the end of the end of the support of the Escobar competing Cali cartels, such as Marc Bowden in his book "Killing Pablo" represents. The Cali Kartell and others eagerly used all the possibilities caused by the decay of Escobars Medellin-Kartell.

In an investigation of the 1993 drug problem, the Gottinger Jura Professor Kai Ambos points out that the name of the drug networks as "cartel" misrepresentation. It is suggested that their smash was meant the end of the Colombian or even the worldwide cocaine trade. "A danger and superficial simplification", so ambos true.

That the repression does not work as a whole, some observers drove back to the fact that they are heavily playing in a serious and uncontrollable dark field. For example, the expert Alfred McCoy, Professor at the University of Wisconsin-Madison in his book now published in German "The Politics of Heroin" (Intelligence policy under drug influence) found that many intelligence and government agencies are directly or indirectly contributing to the structuring of the drug market instead of evaporating him:

In fact, the list of governments whose hidden services had close relationships with significant drug smuggles, surprisingly long – NationalChina, Imperial Japan, the Gaullist France, Thailand, Pakistan and the United States. Instead of reducing or combating the drug supply, most intelligence agencies seem to regulate smuggling by making preferred dealer and eliminate their rivals.

Source of income from terrorist groups

Excluded by the Connector in Madrid in Marz Memits of the COMITE of the SAGES of the Network of European Foundations (NEF) pointed to the connection between drug trafficking and the financing of terrorist groupings. In fact, UNODC emphasizes that after the fall of the Taliban regime of poppy seed cultivation and heroin production have risen sharply since 2002. The treasured profit of € 2 billion is divided between farmers, smugglers, warlords and terrorists like Al-Quaeda. Money spent to the destabilization of the government in Kabul, for logistics, weapons and training new recruits.

An ideology in the end: the global drug prohibition

Opium production 1990 to 2002, Source: UNODC

Even US hardliners call for one "Plan Afghanistan" – the "War against the drugs" should be misconciled with the similar "War against terror" be credited. Non-governmental thinking industries such as the Senlis Council Council or the NEF rounded in May 2002, however, warns to further encourage the error of prohibition policy. Guardian help is available from Raymond Kendall, 1985 to 1995 Interpol General Secretar. Especially the drug ban became a lucrative black market, where terrorist groups are active, emphasizes the former British ambassador in Colombia and member of the Nef Comite of the Sages, Sir Keith Morris. The state-of-state UN bodies and cases are inadequate to see the failure of their policy. In a state-controlled market, prices are much lower and the black market was dried out.

The front brockets

In the international community, the front of the zero-tolerance pendant. With their liberal politics, the Netherlands did the beginning in the 1970s. Spain has declared the possession of Marihuana for personal use in 1992, Belgium and Portugal 2001. In Germany, since the judgment of the Federal Scarred Court in 1994 in a still inconsistent practice of the countries and prosecutors, at least for the first stars and small amounts of cannabis apart from a law enforcement.

In January of this year, the possession of small amounts of custodizers and their consumption was declared in Venezuela. In February, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies adopted a law, with which prison sentences are abolished due to drug ownership. Instead, working hours are announced. A similar law is on the 12th. May entered into force in Russia. The possession of low quantities is only pursued as a misdemeanor, imprisonment threaten even with slightly higher quantities. The Russian drug control doctors were committed before the entry into force of the Law, the reform to drove the definition of volatile quantities ad absurdum.

In the US, nine states are now allowed to grow and own marijuana, as far as a doctor is attested to consumes medical purposes. They are thus conflict with the US drug stompany dea and the woman’s house.

Alternative drug policy

The new approach focuses on looking at drug use as a problem of health and social policy and not the prosecution. It is about minimizing the health and social damage resulting from drug use. For example, in view of the spread of HIV and hepatitis C, the exchange and providing spraying, but also methadone substitution programs – or just the dehydration of the black market by controlled legalization, as well as more effective challenges for small farmers.

The most vehemented argument against a controlled release of drugs is the extraction that this leads to an increase in drug users and drug notes. Ambos advocates that the drug notes attributed to justify the prohibition are their victims. The illegal status of the charging agents is not a control of composition and quality of the drugs, which therefore fluctuates greatly. Last but not least due to this circumstance, it can come with heroinkonum to unintentional overdoses with death. "As an example for how to do health policy, you will see the international debate on drugs", wrote the Economist in April 2003.

If one does not require a good cause for such legalization by the legalization opponents and the risks of such legalization, in view of the considerable material and intangible costs of present prohibition policy and the hoped-for advantages of a controlled legalization, the risk of a slight increase in consumption rates in Buy.

Quay ambos

Obstacle: the UN conventions

In December 2002, Uber 100 MEPs called up a revision of the UN conventions of 1961 and 1971 and to pick up the convention of 1988 completely. The conventions allow only a tiny room that has to be completely eliminated for alternative approaches. A controlled legalization with state-regulated production hour in contradiction to the obligation to make the production and sale under punishment.

However, the UNI-SYSTEBILITY conventions could be ignored, but the stability of the United Nations Contracting System’s Contracting Systems has been able to store themselves, providing themselves ProhibitionScript facilities such as the Transnational Institute. However, on that, David Wohley-Taylor points to the International Journal of Drug Policy, a modification of the contracting in the state-of-state UN bodies without the required tuning majorities is impossible. Any reforming room could also be used by the hardliners – including the USA, Italy and Sweden – to enforce in the end still sharp regulations. So it wishes that of these countries through voluntary financing contributions dominated UNODC about one "International secret service against drug smuggling and money wash" as well as the criminal liability of drug smuggling and "Related offenses" Immediately after Volkertraftrecht.

Even without changing, cancellation or exit from the search fabric conventions there is a loophole for further steps. The 1988 Convention provides the criminal liability of the possession or cultivation of noise for personal use under the reservation that it is compatible with sanctuary. The incompatibility of law enforcement with national prevalence right thus would be an admissible argument for a legalization of collecting with noise for personal use.

First candidate: cannabis

First candidate for such a practice goods cannabis. The emphasis of the health hazards outlined by cannabis is increasingly in air in the face of medical findings.

"In the context of occasional or regular leisure use, even if it reaches the frequency of twice per three days, no addiction is created by cannabis and no dependence and is not to be expected with health damage", Carl Nedelmann summarized the research status four years ago in the German doctor blade. The cannabis ban Konne is therefore no longer trimmed on medical arguments.

According to Distributor Muller, the succinct rules of the Betreatian Law therefore at least against the prohibition of survey. "The charge means in Germany really protects a certain morality", Does Professor Bollinger say and states the "Decline in legislative criminal law".

An ideology in the end: the global drug prohibition

Cannabis Plant, Source: Grow

Also opinion polls indicate a trendy. In early 2001, 74 percent of respondents appeared in the USA that the "Drug war" a failure. In the case of a survey on the order of USA Today and CNN in August 2001, the percentage of the commutations of a cannabis legalization grew to 34 percent, the highest value since this question was first set in 1969. Decades, he was constant at about 25 percent. In June 2003, 41 percent ignored at a Zugby survey that "Marijuana should be more or less treated like alcohol". According to an EMNID survey in Germany in 2002, 36 percent voted for it, a penetration of the Betreatian Law as a simple misdemeanor, 26 percent wanted the sale or at least the possession. Only a minority of 36 percent was on a law enforcement.

Despite government participation of the green and such survey results, nothing has happened since 1998 in the field of cannabis policy in Germany. In the red-green coalition agreement from 2002 it is called laconically that "Suspended judgments of the Federal Scarf Court" were taken into account. After the judgment of 1994 the legislator has "the impact of the applicable law, including the experience of foreign countries, to observe and check". This is obviously not.

With a rejection of the Cannabis-related criminal legislation of the Betreats Act, Karlsruhe Richter also planned internationally another sign for a reasonable drug policy. Due to the workload due to earlier entered procedures, however, no decision-making is currently foreseeable via the Bernauer template, as a spokesman of the court Telepolis announced.

Un-drug policy undermines itself

The Inhumane Drug Policy of the United Nations ultimately undermines itself. For this purpose, the obviously nonsensical goal contributes until 2008 "drug-free world" want to create. Progressive governments should lose themselves in a network and fight for a change in UNIsystuff conventions to obtain a larger national manovring room – if necessary under the threat of leaving the contract system.

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