Rabbit and hedgehog

How Excessive Copyright Protection Cultural German

Bureworders of a stronger protection of "intellectual property" among other things, this is that good in cultural community, in the "Public domain", were expired because their nobody accepts. Also, no incentives are given to create new cultural purity if they fell into the public domain. What may apply to parks and playgrounds, however, does not apply to cultural heritage and software. A cultural asset usually arises by jerking over cultural community – on myths, events, adjustments, melodies, tones or conventions – but can be easily obstructed in the case of underlying copyright protection.

Examples are Legion: George Lucas served for "Starwars" Not only extensive in film history (about Akira Kurosawas "Kakushi Toride No San Akunin", at John Fords "The Searchers" and at the Flash Gordon series), but also the myths of all humanity, starting at Odipus. Against the use of Star-Wars figures in stories written fans, but he was legally. Bob Dylan built his career on the rich treasure of American folksongs from the Public Domain. In order to prevent the transition of his own songs into this public domain (and thus the usability for the following artists), he was strongly committed to the 1998 adopted "Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act", which requires the term of copyright to 70 years after the death of the author. The series "Buffy The Vampire Slayer" Accesses numerous popular motifs of the horror movie back, which are in the public domain illos a component of the success of the series. The transmitter Fox, however, the rights to the series stop, love a fan website, because you offer a driver to the content of the individual episodes. the "SIMPSONS" Life a rough part of your parody treatment with quotes from the film and television history. Here FOX also forced the years before the retention of inconsequential fans for alleged copyright injuries.

The history of the danger and destruction of cultural assets is well to pursue well at the fate of a film, the game ball of a nearly ten-year rabbit and hedgehog game, ultimately only thanks to brave rescue attempts could be obtained: Nosferatu.

Rabbit and Hedgehog

Fear of the Bosen widow

Also the "Dracula"-Roman was created by excessive access to a rich public domain.1 So author Bram Stoker relieved his erahp strategy from the 1860 published novel "The woman in white" by Wilkie Collins and its Transylvania descriptions from the adventure report of his brother. Action and figures are not only of the historical figure Vlad Tepes, but also from Balkan and Irish people’s magic, the Tarot, Shakespeare "Macbeth" as well as the Jack-The-Ripper criminal case inspired.

In contrast to the novel the movie could "Nosferatu", who sustained on Stokers Roman and against which the widow of the novelist had obtained a court ruling to the destruction of the film, only by an existing and conscious clarification against the copyright and by a hiding game over three continents.

Bram Stoker secured the copyright on dramatizations of his book in 1897 by a four-hour dramatic reading, which fell on contemporaries on little. In 1921 Henrik Adapted Galeen Stokers Roman for the script "Nosferatu", but another the names of the figures. Stoker was performed in the biasing of the film as an author of the template. The director Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau and a variety of performers and artists created using this script of one of the masterpieces of film history. 1922 became "Nosferatu" In Berlin premiered. In the same year Stokers Witwe Florence commissioned the British Incorporate Society of Authors a lawyer with the enforcement of rights "Nosferatu".In 1924, a Berlin court decided against the legal successor of the manufacturer of the film gone in bankruptcy. When the company did not want to pay the required 5000 pounds for the reconciliation of the rights, the widow Stokers demanded the destruction of the film. An appeal was rejected, the final destruction of all negative and positives of "Nosferatu" judicial. Neither the director Murnau, nor the actors or artists were able to influence the destruction of their work.

Only thanks to wise legs could be saved copies. In 1925, the film Society in London announced "Nosferatu" at. The widow Stokers tried to intervene, but they insisted on the private character of the pre-guided and refused to provide information by which the film was bought in Germany. When the widow identified the importer, the sockets with the film rolls were again "on the run". The company called the Jager of the Lost Rights the name of a man who should actually have the film in his possession, but this was disappeared from the ground. Three years later showed the movie Society in London "Nosferatu." They played the movie kept all the time and amed he was randomly discovered in a safe when it was transported to Australia. In 1929 Florence Stoker expresses the destruction of the negative. Meanwhile, copies were reached for France and America. In 1930, the Hollywood-Studio Universal was able to overcome the blockade of the Stoker widow, which acquire movie rights at the Dracula fabric and finally work on her "Dracula"-Start filming with Bela Lugosi.

Rabbit and Hedgehog

Artwork on the flight in front of the law

Copyright, which should actually demand the production of cultural works, had hindered the cultural production of films and theater charts for almost ten years. The protection of copyright had, if not always individual individuals had brave and tricky against the court’s judgment, almost for the destruction of the most important work of the director F.W. Murnau, the artist and architect Albin Gray, and more numerous other participants. The next "Metropolis" and the "Golem" Probably the most significant German silent film was for almost ten years of the whims of a narrow-minded widow and the commission strut of some salaries.

This "Heir problem" constitutes itself from the validity of talentless descendants, the profit-in-theist of law firms, and a copyright that this requires this. Among other things, it led to destruction rough parts of the creation of Max Weber and thwart the appearance of numerous cultural heritage today. Thus, a perception supervisor of the heirs of Orson Welles has long previously prevents the planned publication of various plants such as Horplay CDs and a collection of Orson-Welles articles at the University of California Press.

Especially with films, which – often stored improperly – in archives to decompose into archives and quickly restored or digitized, the Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act has made a lot of damage and will cause even more damage by 2019. Until then, after the legislation no more films fall into the public domain. Wherever numerous smaller companies material, for which the copyright has not been demanded, restored and evaluated, has come after the automatic deflection of the copyright by the law adopted in 1998. The coarse film companies, however, who hold the copyright, often have no commercial interest in the restoration and exploitation of many old films. Thus, the preservation of such cultural heroes must take place on legally insecure terrain, must be tried to restore and copy faster in a rabbit and hedgehog game, as a lawyer can.

One of the most successful pop groups of the 80s and 90s was the KLF. Her first, under the name "Justified Ancients of Mu Mu" published album, "What The Fuck Is Going On?", Must in 1987 because of the unauthorized use of a samples of Abbas Stuck "Dancing Queen" for "The Queen and I" be destroyed. The few already delivered copies immediately achieved collector prices of up to a thousand pounds. Through programs like Napster, this work can, one of the best pop albums of the 80s, in the form of MP3 files, can also be accessible to someone who can not apply a thousand pounds for a LP. For these programs, more than for the abovementioned trap is the rabbit and hedgehog principle: When the music industry uses to uplift / complaints, the next system appears at the target straight, Napster, Gnutella, Freenet.

The situation is particularly problematic with cultural providers who are not recognized as such because of their youth. So the Interactive Digital Software Association is not just against "piracy" in Eastern European copying plants, but also against persons who play computer games that are not officially distributed. The software companies have no interest in the distribution of the old games: For mass sales are mainly elaborate games that drive the current graphics cards and processors to their limits. With for the COMMODORE C 64 or the Sinclair ZX 81 written games can be achieved no profit margins, which drive the share price of the company in the high. No longer available on sale, as well as emulators on numerous websites, especially in Scandinavia, mostly free of charge from fans. For the games, among them classics like the TextAdventure series "Zork" and "They stole a million" has the expression "Abandonware" embossed – discontinued software, which no longer sells the former manufacturer and for which you do not offer support. The copyright is still kept, and whether the company uses it or not, may not anyone tackle something.

Three years ago, one of Nicola Salmoria started open source project for preserving old arcade games called Mame (Multiple Arcade Machine Emulator). For the emulation of old arcades games, in addition to the program, are necessarily necessary on the old hardware-enrolled ROM codes of the games. However, offering these codes is not allowed by companies like Nintendo. To protect the MAME project, therefore emulator and ROM images can not be offered on the same website. When downloading the emulator, the user must explain by clicking on the ROM images already. The economic argument presented by the media industry in copyright injuries is not applicable in the case of the emulation of arcade games: players do not invite themselves "Donkey Kong", A Nintendo game of 1981, down to leave for a new one. Anyone who gets an old game is looking for an experience that the market can not offer him. If that was not the same, no new games had to be developed and old ones are abandoned. The software industry can not even argue here with missed profit. Only an archaic copyright protection allows her for the feudal insistence on rights to the culturally used cultural providers, which are exposed in their hand only the risk of decay.

Like this post? Please share to your friends:
Leave a Reply

;-) :| :x :twisted: :smile: :shock: :sad: :roll: :razz: :oops: :o :mrgreen: :lol: :idea: :grin: :evil: :cry: :cool: :arrow: :???: :?: :!: