Two Soldiers in British Services (Sepoys), 1857 Due to Rebellion. Image: Public Domain
Small Marx lexicon – eighth and last episode
In this episode: Obschin / Colonialism / Dance
Can be the Russian Obschin, one, if even highly undermined form of ancient community-owned property, right into the higher of the communist community? Or must, conversely, undergo the same resolution process that accounts for the historical development of the West? The only answer to this, which is possible today, is that: If the Russian revolution becomes the signal of a proletarian revolution in the West, so that both yield each other, the current Russian property can serve on the ground to the starting point of a communist development.
(MEW 19/296; cf. Even S. 396ff.To)
Marx, who wrote this one year before his death in 1883 together with angels, anticipated the upcoming umbrellery. However, this prophecy does not produce a teleological history of history, one "necessary gear" history and the like, but by a greeting for unevenness.
The protagonists of the October Revolution were composed, on the other hand, in a communist end-time thinking or even chiliasm, which was paired with the cat’s culprit that Russia is actually not ripe because of the underdevelopment of the proletariat for the revolution. Consequently, they could not do much with this hidden indication of the Obschina. In 1892 angels no longer sat on the Obschina, as they are no longer to save. (MEW 38/305) 1. But to complete the discrepancies, his budget was now that capitalism is enforceable in Russia.
This old shape of the village community with community came in the Central European Middle Ages among other conditions and in other figure under the name "Enduring" on. And as long as the revolution is not in progress, have ever been forming initiatives in space of today’s capitalism, which ask questions: whom is the city? Who belongs the water? etc. Against the increasing privatization and marginalization of the public space, they protest under the slaughter fee: Reclaim the Commons. Your classic economic form is the cooperative.
Can skip the Obschina, the Russian village community with community, capitalism? Marx shows willingness to deviate from a history destination ministry.
As a correspondent of the New York Daily Tribune, Marx reported between 1852 and 1862 by London from Colonialist and Imperialist rule worldwide. Most articles are dedicated to the "British rule in India". After the Hollanden, the East Indian Company grafted their despotism to the despotism of the Asian mode of production by the price of destruction. "England has torn the whole socket of the Indian society without having so far only the trace of a new structure became visible."(MEW 9/129) The suppression of an uprising of 1857 was expressed in cruelty only from the opium wars against China.
1857-59: Uprising against the British colonial. Sepoys distribute loot. Image: Public Domain
Sole production, manufactory and agriculture were the basis of the Indian mode of production.
Those community based on the family had their real basis in the home industry, in that peculiar combination of handwoven fabric, hand spinning and hand-powered agriculture, which they sat in the stand, to provide themselves.
The trade was erased. The negligence of the watering systems love the agricultural sign. The communities were dissolved.
It was the British intruder who destroyed the Indian hand loom and broke the spinning wheel. England started with the fact that it displaced the Indian Kattun from the European market; Then, Maschinenhunter after Hindustan, there was a lively the actual motherland of the Cattun with Cattuns.
The driving force were the steam machines.
License plate of Asian, in special Indian mode of production is missing any private property due to land. The relationship of the producer to the objective conditions of work is mediated by his existence as a parishion member, writes Marx.2 The individuals are located in a Blob Accidential situation against their natural community as a substance. This reads like a primeval shape of communism, but Marx also points out that it was anything but Arcadia, unfinished.
He monitors the "Vision". About the scattered municipalities with their community is a central government, which was originally regulated the construction and operation of waste water plants, but now has become desperate. People leave the central government and their trade in competing made like a natural event, as long as only their village is undivided. Your mental tentatat is bully, animals are their gods, and the production of production are static.
Changes are outside the horizon. This distinguishes this mode of mode of others such as the ancient, Germanic and the feudal, which is also familiar forms of community, but wear the germ at highly developed social formation in itself and thus dying, at least only exist in residuals. There comes the Hegelian in Marx again. Hail had actually written: India and China are outside the world history.
Capitalism is in the historical philosophical series very back. He has the tendency to worldwide expansion. If this is gestable to its limits, the transhipment conditions are given that capitalism destroys itself. However, the bumped Asian mode of production does not fill the conditions on the way there. Otherwise the stangs nothing. Capitalist imperialism must first prevail in India and China to create the conditions for communism there.
The question is whether humanity can fulfill its determination without radical revolutionary of social relevance in Asia. If not, it was England, which crimes may have committed it, but the unconscious tool of the story by bringing it to this revolution.
Such sentences have almost already stereotyping in their emphase. Critics overlook that Marx had a sharp view as a journalist also for details. All of the Passant supersede, whether it does not give up fractions in China to develop a capitalism. Japan also initiated a modernization from its own power. As described, Marx also lets the Russian Obschina exceptions from the theoretical dogmatics. She was able to skip the capitalist level.
In the 23. Chapter of ‘Capital’ writes Marx that the original accumulation is the European masses under the Juggernaut-Wheel of the capital hurls. The allegory plays on a Hindu cult, in which credo are threatened by the process trolle. The picture suggests parallels between the original accumulation and the destruction of Indian community by the English.
What about the "British rule" become? The Landers have become independent. The import / export stroms have changed. But has changed mostly something when the international textile swamp is based on the expulsion of people from the country, wage prere and dangerous working conditions? The strikes and demonstrations of textile workers in Bangladesh and Pakistan are no longer as Asian, they are very marxist.
The colonialism was devastating to the "Asian mode of production". However, capitalism stobsts with the global usurpation to its own borders, not only the outside, but also the internal of self-destruction.
dance? Marx, the choreographer? The choreographer of the burgeral society?
In the introduction "To criticize the Hegel’s legal philosophy" Write Marx 1844: "You have to force these petrified relevance to dance that you make your own melody." (MEW 1/381)
The French social philosophe Jean Baudrillard (1929-2007) has pointed that: you have to drive things to the most out of themselves until they are in themselves. – And who is not quite woman, which is a dialectic, learns here at an application of what they can do. Dancer.
The most critique criticism is the one who puts the company in motion so that it drives out of itself.
A cartoon of 1843 shows Karl Marx as a cannily Prometheus. It is an allegory on the prohibition of the Rhenish newspaper whose editor-in-chief was Marx. Of the "Thinker" Prometheus robs the gods the fire, including enlightenment, and brings it to people. He will be punished for that. The picture will have fallen Marx. He was a rebel who had to fight with censorship, law enforcement and expulsion. His first rebellion had directed against the father. The conflict was held peacefully in a moving correspondence. Conflicts of this kind has classically described Sigmund Freud, for the antiquity, but also for the 19. century.
Karl Marx, the ceded Prometheus. Lithograph of 1843. Image: Public Domain
From this to the following skills in the life of the Karl Marx too close, it would be such as trivial pre-definition. But the further biography shows empirically that Marx was firmly involved in the autoritarian structures of the 19. Century, against which he also rebelled. The dictatorship of the proletariat is the symbol of the authoritarianism. The question is not whether she is justified or not. Bertolt Brecht summarizes the dilemma of the necessities of revolutionary violence in verses: "We were good, rather than raw, but the conditions that are not like that." A schooner set, but somehow poor conscience and self-pity swing with.
The antithesis was represented by the anarchists: rejection of any autoritarism, liberation of man from the shackles here and now. This immediacy requires a mentatite of the people that they immediately mature for communism. Marx rises with this idea. The way to communism is rocky. Marx puts on the practice of the revolution and its own revolutionary thinking to guarantee the success. But he does not require a maxim that people are distracting? The communists are the physical manager of those maxim and help. The enthusiasm that from the 11. Firebachthesis speaks (see: philosophy), is worn out with the profane thinking about the implementation. The subjective and objective moments of the revolution are difficult to bring together.
About the need with which capitalism unfolds the power of his own negation, the state (the transition phase) rises, which is filled with new content, from above the control over the socialization and control over the subsequent awareness to take over by people who are still subjected to the eggshells of the old. This political, if necessary violent action is ultimately justified by necessity – need, interspersed with willkur.
At the end of the 1920s, the young left sociologists of the "Institute for social research" noted that the social contradictions were sharpened in such a way and the social wealth was roughened due to the unleashing of the productive force such that time after a revolution. But for her amazement, more and more workers ran to Adolf Hitler over. The person of dictator, not unlike the name Lenin or Stalin, is already the answer to the paradox: people sought vehicle. They were authoritated. You searched for lost times. They did not realize that it was a jerking into the barbarism. Consciousness went from the social.
In the "German ideology" Write Marx and Engels that "every drive, every requirement as a power ‘in the individual about the individual’ behaved as soon as the circumstances prevent their satisfaction." (MEW 3/86) It is the rule of thought in the individual about it. The cravings of his head grow over his head. (MEW 3/144)
If this site did not give it, you had to say: Marx has forgotten the psyche. Other like Michel Foucault, Theodor W. Adorno or Klaus Heinrich you have in the 20th. Century.
Accumulation, Original (Part 5) / Exploitation (Part 2) / Bonaparte (Part 3) / Bonapartism (Part 3) / Character Mask (Part 1) / Dictatorship of the proletariat (Part 6) / alienation (Part 2) / Expropriation of the Expropriature Part 5) / Fetish (Part 1) / Violence (Part 5) / Hegel (Part 4) / Wooden Theft (Part 1) / Idetology (Part 4) / Jewish Question (Part 4) / Colonialism (Part / Communism (Part 6 ) / Lump Proletariat (Part 3) / Obschin (Part / Parisian Municipality (Part 6) / Paris Manuscripts (Part 2) / Philosophy (Part 4) / Hour Telt Theory (Part 7) / Dance (Part / Table (Part 1 ) / Utopian Socialism (Part 7) / Value (Part 2).